PHYSICS 201 / 202
College Physics 1 / 2 Laboratory
Instructor: Michael Gavriel Reyes
CEBU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY - UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering and Architecture
NOTE: Course requirements, grading system, and class poli
P-V Indicator Digram
Only two thermodynamic variables are sufficient to describe a system because third
vaiable can be calculated from equation of state of the system.
P-V Indicator Digram is just a graph between pressure and volume of a system
Internal Energy and first law of thermodynamics
Internal energy can be described as the sum of kinetic and potantial energies of individual
movecules in the material.
But in thermodynamics one should keep in mind that U is simply a macrosopic variable
Work done in Isothermal process
In an isothermal process temperature remains constant.
Consider pressure and volume of ideal gas changes from (P1, V1) to (P2, V2) then, from
first law of thermodynamics
W = PV
Now taking V aproaching zero i.e. V and suming
Principle of a Refrigerator
Refrigerators works in reverse direction of heat engines.
In refrigerators working substance extracts heat Q2 from sink at lower temperature T2
Some external work is performed by the compressor of refrigerator and then heat Q1
A rod is composed of two section whose length are L1 and L2 and heat conductivities are K1 and
K2 respectivity.One end of the rod is kept at T1 and other end is kept at T2.The rod is enclosed in
a thermally insulating sheath.
a. Find the temperature
Stefan Boltzmann law
The rate urad at which an object emits energy via EM radiation depends on objects surface
and temperature T in kelvin of that area and is given by
urad = AT4
= 5.670310-8 W/m2K4
is stefan boltzmann constant and is emissiv
Conduction of heat takes place in a body when diffrent part of body are at diffrent
To notice conduction of heat put one end of metal rod on flame and another end on your
hand. After some time you will feel hotness in your
Convection is transfer of heat by actual motion of matter
If material is forced to move by a blower or pump the process is called forced convection.
If the material flows due to difference in density for example that caused by thermal
Good absorbers of radiation are also good radiaters this statement is quantitatively
explained by Kirchoff's law.
(i) Emissive Power Emissive power denotes the energy radiated per unit area per unit solid angle normal to
E = u/ [(
a) Quasi static Processes
In Quasi static process deviation of system from it's thermodynamic equilibrium is
All the states through which system passed during a quasi static process may be regarded