Summary unsteady flows
For unsteady flow and water hammer:
1. Know the physical meaning of each term in the energy equation for unsteady flow:
p1 V12
p 2 V22
L V2
V 2 L dV
z1
z2 f
K i
g 2 g
g 2 g
D 2g
2 g g dt
2. Know the effects of fluid compressibil
Hydraulic Structures and Flow Measurements
Type 1
Applications of the structures:
Irrigation
Water supply
Drainage
Sewage treatment
Hydropower engineering
Flow under pressure through a fixed
cross section: e.g.
orifices, nozzles, short pipes, gates
Hydrau
Tutorial 3 Pump in series and parallel operation
Q1. Oil with specific gravity 1.08 is to be transferred a tank at elevation 0 m to another tank
at elevation 5 m through a piping system. The pipe diameter is 400mm, overall length of pipe
is 80m and fricti
Tutorial 1 Pipe flow
Q1. Two reservoirs A and B have a difference in level of 9 m, and are
connected by a pipeline 200 mm in diameter over the first part AC,
which is 15 m long, and then 250 mm diameter for CB, the remaining
45 m length. The entrance to a
Summary (weeks 1-2)
1. Energy loss in the pipe:
Minor/local loss:
hL K L
U2
2g
(#)
2
LV
D 2g
o f: friction factor,
Friction loss: hL f
(#)
For Laminar flow: f 64 / Re
(#)
Where Re is the Reynolds number: Re VD / VD /
(#)
For turbulent flow, it can be ob
3. Expressions for head loss hL:
2
L
V
To derive the expression hL f
D 2g
and
f
Forces add on a fluid element:
Pressures force Ap1 and Ap2,
Friction force: PL (P perimeter=D)
Wsin
Weight = Volume=gAL
W
Force equilibrium in
flow direction:
z1
p1 A p2 A gAL
Tutorial 2 Pump operation and pump similarity laws
Q1 A centrifugal pump provides a flow rate of 0.03 m3/s when operating at 1750 rpm against 60 m
head. Determine the pumps flow rate and developed head if the pump speed is increased to 3500
rpm.
Q2. Oil w
Tutorial 2 Pump operation and pump similarity laws
Q2. Oil with SG 0.85 is to be transferred from Tank A to Tank B over a pipe length of 80m,
diameter of pipe 80mm ( suction and discharge ), frictional factor f = 0.0012 , and total loss
factor K=1. Tank A
Pipe network
1. Applications:
City water distribution
Multiple inlets & outlets
2. Some definitions:
Nodes: the joint points of the pipes
Fixed-grade nodes: have known hydraulicgrade line, such as the free surface of a tank,
Piezometric heads H p / g
Tutorial 1
Q1 Two reservoirs A and B have a difference in level of 9 m, and are connected by a pipeline 200 mm in diameter
over the first part AC, which is 15 m long, and then 250 mm diameter for CB, the remaining 45 m length. The
entrance to and exit fro
Pumps and pipeline
1. Applications of pumps
Add energy to the fluid to overcome:
Friction and minor losses along a pipeline system
Elevation changes or potential energy changes
2. Working fluid: gas or liquid
Air: fan, blower, compressor compressibility e
Hydrodynamic Forces on offshore structures
Offshore structures, e.g. piles, pipeline, risers and cables, oil platforms etc.
Source of forces: Caused by fluid movement passing over the structures
Type of structures
Slender objects (D/L < 0.2, D: diamet
Summary pumps and pipelines
1. Know how to derive system demand curve using energy equation
2. Pump performance characteristics normally provided by the suppliers
Either in the form of a relationship, such as h p c bQ aQ 2 , or
Given in a table as the t
Summary of open channel flow
1. Understand the significance of open channel flow,
2. Understand our aims for studying open channel flow,
3. Understand the characteristics of open channel flows
I.
Uniform open channel flow:
Know characteristics of uniform
Summary of Wave theory
1. Remember the important terminologies (#)
Wave period: T
Wave length: L
Wave celerity: C = L/T
Wave number: k = 2 /L
Angular frequency: 2 / T
Wave Height: H
Surface elevation:
Wave steepness: H/L
2. Dispersion equation
(#
Examples of hydraulic jumps
1. Hydraulic jump downstream of a sluice gate
2. Hydraulic jump occurs on transition of slopes
3. Hydraulic jump occurs due to downstream obstacles
4. Example of obstacles for hydraulic jump to dissipate water
energy to protect
Summary Hydrodynamic Forces on offshore structures
1. Understand the phenomena of vortex shedding and vortex shedding frequency fv.
2. Understand the source of mean and fluctuating drag and lift forces on a cylindrical
structure in a steady current,
3. Th
Summary of Hydraulic structures
1. Understand:
Applications of the hydraulic structures:
Main tasks for the hydraulic structures
Types of hydraulic structures
2. Orifices and sluiceways
Understand the derivation of Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4) and why a disch
Additional explanation on open channel flow
1. Uniform open-channel flow:
(1) The discharge:
1
Q A Rh2 / 3S01/ 2
n
As Rh and A is related with the water depth y0, this water depth is called normal depth.
(2) The slope S0 of the channel bottom is the same
5. Culverts
Culverts are covered channels of relatively short length designed to pass
water across the embankments of highways, railroads or dams.
Applications:
It may carry flood waters
Drainage flows
Natural streams below earth filled and rock filled st
Chapter 2 Pumps and pipeline
1. Applications of pumps
Add energy to the fluid to overcome:
Friction and minor losses along a pipeline system
Elevation changes or potential energy changes
2. Working fluid: gas or liquid
Air: fan, blower, compressor compres
Sumarrize written text
1. Comparative advantage
Developing countries specialize in the production of labor-intensive producs, whereas United
States specialize in the production of goods that are human-and physical-captial intensive,
however, once these te
Tutorial 5 Uniform Open Channel Flow
Q1. Water flows in the triangular steel channel shown in Fig. 1 at a velocity of 1 m/s. Find the depth
of flow if the channel slope is 0.0015.
55o
d
n = 0.012
V
1 2 / 3 1/ 2
Rh S 0 - (1)
n
Rh = A/pw = 2cfw_[(d)(d tan27
Tutorial 12 Frequency analysis Empirical probability
(- Venue: ELT1 12-13pm 26 May Friday)
Empirical
probability is a non-parametric probability (no theoretical
distribution curves). To work out the empirical probability, rank the
data points in descendin
Tutorial 11
Wave theory-I
Question 1.
A pressure gage located 1 m off the bottom in 10 m depth of water measures an average maximum
pressure of 10 N/cm2 having an average period of 12 s. Find the wave length and wave celerity.
Solution:
The formula for ca
Q1. A centrifugal pump is to be placed above a large, open water tank and is to pump
water at Q = 0.016 m3/s. At this flow rate the required NPSHR is 4.6m, as specified by
the pump manufacturer. The atmospheric pressure is 101.3kPa. Determine the
maximum
Solution
Step 1 we need to analyze this question,
There are 8 pipes, 2 reservoirs; piezometric heads H=( p/ g ) + z at
A,B,C,D,E,F,G: , HA, HB, HC, HD, HE, HF, HG;
With the known conditions, given: R1 , R2 , R3 , R4 , R5 , R6 , R7 ,
R8 , HA, HB; 13 unknow
Q1. Water flows from a reservoir in a horizontal pipeline and discharge to atmosphere
with d= 0.15 m, L= 1500 m, and f = 0.02. The valve is completely closed within 4s
and gives a uniform deceleration in the pipe. Calculate pressure just upstream of the
v
Tutorial 13 Frequency analysis Fitting to Empirical probability
(- Venue: ELT1 12-13pm 2 June Friday)
The same data series as for Tutorial 12.
Based on the empirical probability, using
Pearson III to fit the time series and find Q
for P = 0.1%.
Solution:
Tutorial 1
Q2. Determine the discharges in the pipes. Neglecting minor losses.
The roughness height of all pipes is 0.06 mm.
pe
A-J
J-B
J-C
J-D
Pipe No.
1
2
3
4
L (m)
10000
2000
3000
3000
D (mm)
450
350
300
250
200
ZJ
B
100
C
A
(1)
120
J
(2)
(3)
(4)
75
D