Sumarrize written text
1. Comparative advantage
Developing countries specialize in the production of labor-intensive producs, whereas United
States specialize in the production of goods that are human-and physical-captial intensive,
however, once these te
Pipe network
1. Applications:
City water distribution
Multiple inlets & outlets
2. Some definitions:
Nodes: the joint points of the pipes
Fixed-grade nodes: have known hydraulicgrade line, such as the free surface of a tank,
Piezometric heads H p / g
Tutorial 2 Pump operation and pump similarity laws
Q2. Oil with SG 0.85 is to be transferred from Tank A to Tank B over a pipe length of 80m,
diameter of pipe 80mm ( suction and discharge ), frictional factor f = 0.0012 , and total loss
factor K=1. Tank A
Tutorial 2 Pump operation and pump similarity laws
Q1 A centrifugal pump provides a flow rate of 0.03 m3/s when operating at 1750 rpm against 60 m
head. Determine the pumps flow rate and developed head if the pump speed is increased to 3500
rpm.
Q2. Oil w
3. Expressions for head loss hL:
2
L
V
To derive the expression hL f
D 2g
and
f
Forces add on a fluid element:
Pressures force Ap1 and Ap2,
Friction force: PL (P perimeter=D)
Wsin
Weight = Volume=gAL
W
Force equilibrium in
flow direction:
z1
p1 A p2 A gAL
Summary (weeks 1-2)
1. Energy loss in the pipe:
Minor/local loss:
hL K L
U2
2g
(#)
2
LV
D 2g
o f: friction factor,
Friction loss: hL f
(#)
For Laminar flow: f 64 / Re
(#)
Where Re is the Reynolds number: Re VD / VD /
(#)
For turbulent flow, it can be ob
Tutorial 1 Pipe flow
Q1. Two reservoirs A and B have a difference in level of 9 m, and are
connected by a pipeline 200 mm in diameter over the first part AC,
which is 15 m long, and then 250 mm diameter for CB, the remaining
45 m length. The entrance to a
Tutorial 3 Pump in series and parallel operation
Q1. Oil with specific gravity 1.08 is to be transferred a tank at elevation 0 m to another tank
at elevation 5 m through a piping system. The pipe diameter is 400mm, overall length of pipe
is 80m and fricti
Tutorial 8
Hydraulic structures-I
Q1. A 2.5 m long, 0.5 m diameter rough steel drain pipe with a sharp entrance is opened
to allow flow under a 3 m depth of water. What will be the discharge through the pipe?
Q2. A 1.8 m wide vertical gate on the top of a
UNIT OUTLINE
CIVL4402: Civil Hydraulics (Semester 1, 2014)
Aims and outcomes: The major objective of the unit is to acquire basic theory and principals of Hydraulics
and to develop students ability to apply the knowledge of hydraulics to solve a wide rang
Summary of Wave theory
1. Remember the important terminologies (#)
Wave period: T
Wave length: L
Wave celerity: C = L/T
Wave number: k = 2 /L
Angular frequency: 2 / T
Wave Height: H
Surface elevation:
Wave steepness: H/L
2. Dispersion equation
(#
Tutorial 10
Wave theory-I
Question 1.
A pressure gage located 1 m off the bottom in 10 m depth of water measures an average
maximum pressure of 10 N/cm2 having an average period of 12 s. Find the wave height
and length. Water density is 1027 kg/m3. (Hint:
Culverts
(The supplementary reading materials are not required for this unit. But they will be helpful
to understand the culvert hydraulics. Please read once or twice if you have time)
Culverts are short conduits used to pass water under roadways. They ar
Iowa Stormwater Management
Manual
2N-2
2N-2 Culvert Hydraulics
A. Culvert flow controls and equations
Figure 1 depicts the energy grade line and the hydraulic grade line for full flow in a culvert barrel.
The energy grade line represents the total energy
Hydraulic Structures and Flow Measurements
Type 1
Applications of the structures:
Irrigation
Water supply
Drainage
Sewage treatment
Hydropower engineering
Flow under pressure through a fixed
cross section: e.g.
orifices, nozzles, short pipes, gates
Hydrau
Tutorial 1
Q1 Two reservoirs A and B have a difference in level of 9 m, and are connected by a pipeline 200 mm in diameter
over the first part AC, which is 15 m long, and then 250 mm diameter for CB, the remaining 45 m length. The
entrance to and exit fro
Chapter 2 Pumps and pipeline
1. Applications of pumps
Add energy to the fluid to overcome:
Friction and minor losses along a pipeline system
Elevation changes or potential energy changes
2. Working fluid: gas or liquid
Air: fan, blower, compressor compres
Hydraulic Structures and Flow Measurements
Type 1
Applications of the structures:
Irrigation
Water supply
Drainage
Sewage treatment
Hydropower engineering
Flow under pressure through a fixed
cross section: e.g.
orifices, nozzles, short pipes, gates
Hydrau
Pumps and pipeline
1. Applications of pumps
Add energy to the fluid to overcome:
Friction and minor losses along a pipeline system
Elevation changes or potential energy changes
2. Working fluid: gas or liquid
Air: fan, blower, compressor compressibility e
Hydrodynamic Forces on offshore structures
Offshore structures, e.g. piles, pipeline, risers and cables, oil platforms etc.
Source of forces: Caused by fluid movement passing over the structures
Type of structures
Slender objects (D/L < 0.2, D: diamet
5. Culverts
Culverts are covered channels of relatively short length designed to pass
water across the embankments of highways, railroads or dams.
Applications:
It may carry flood waters
Drainage flows
Natural streams below earth filled and rock filled st
Additional explanation on open channel flow
1. Uniform open-channel flow:
(1) The discharge:
1
Q A Rh2 / 3S01/ 2
n
As Rh and A is related with the water depth y0, this water depth is called normal depth.
(2) The slope S0 of the channel bottom is the same
Summary of Hydraulic structures
1. Understand:
Applications of the hydraulic structures:
Main tasks for the hydraulic structures
Types of hydraulic structures
2. Orifices and sluiceways
Understand the derivation of Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4) and why a disch
Summary Hydrodynamic Forces on offshore structures
1. Understand the phenomena of vortex shedding and vortex shedding frequency fv.
2. Understand the source of mean and fluctuating drag and lift forces on a cylindrical
structure in a steady current,
3. Th
Examples of hydraulic jumps
1. Hydraulic jump downstream of a sluice gate
2. Hydraulic jump occurs on transition of slopes
3. Hydraulic jump occurs due to downstream obstacles
4. Example of obstacles for hydraulic jump to dissipate water
energy to protect
Summary of Wave theory
1. Remember the important terminologies (#)
Wave period: T
Wave length: L
Wave celerity: C = L/T
Wave number: k = 2 /L
Angular frequency: 2 / T
Wave Height: H
Surface elevation:
Wave steepness: H/L
2. Dispersion equation
(#
Summary of open channel flow
1. Understand the significance of open channel flow,
2. Understand our aims for studying open channel flow,
3. Understand the characteristics of open channel flows
I.
Uniform open channel flow:
Know characteristics of uniform
Summary pumps and pipelines
1. Know how to derive system demand curve using energy equation
2. Pump performance characteristics normally provided by the suppliers
Either in the form of a relationship, such as h p c bQ aQ 2 , or
Given in a table as the t
Summary unsteady flows
For unsteady flow and water hammer:
1. Know the physical meaning of each term in the energy equation for unsteady flow:
p1 V12
p 2 V22
L V2
V 2 L dV
z1
z2 f
K i
g 2 g
g 2 g
D 2g
2 g g dt
2. Know the effects of fluid compressibil