ENSC3003 Fluid Mechanics - 2014
Lab 1
Transition to Turbulence Reynolds Experiment
INTRODUCTION
This experiment is designed to investigate the transition from laminar flow to fully
turbulent flow in a tube. Dye is injected into a pipe flow to enable you t

Question 1(25/100)
For the structure shown in Figure 1, the bar on the left is made of bronze (cross section area
Ab=1500mm2, Young Modulus Eb=105 GPa, temperature coefficient b=21.6x10-6/C) and the
bar on the right is made of aluminium (cross section are

3. Calculate the Reynolds number and Moody friction factor of each
run. Plot your results on the Moody diagram (provided below) and
use them to obtain an estimate for the roughness of the tube ().
Include the Moody diagram in your report. Do your results

3. Calculate the Reynolds number and Moody friction factor of each run. Plot
your results on the Moody diagram (provided below) and use them to obtain
an estimate for the roughness of the tube (). Include the Moody diagram in
your report. Do your results

ENSC3003 Fluid Mechanics - 2014
Lab 1
Transition to Turbulence Reynolds Experiment
Damon Bordi
21134837
Thursday 17/4/2014 9am
Q1. Derive the equation that relates the velocity in the tube (U) to the rate of change of height
in the discharge cylinder (H/t

Example
Concept application Problem 2.49
(Beer at al, 2015)
Problem 2.49
The brass shell (b=20.9x10-6 /C) is
fully bonded to the steel core
(s=11.7x10-6/C).
Determine the largest allowable increase
in temperature if the stress in the steel
core is not to

Solid Mechanics
ENSC3004
Axially loaded members
Dr Elena Pasternak
Slide 1
Plan
Changes
in length of nonuniform bars
(varying cross-sectional areas)
Statically indeterminate structures
Force-displacement relations
Compatibility equation
Thermal
effec

Solid Mechanics
ENSC3004
Torsion
Dr Elena Pasternak
Slide 1
Plan
Torque - angle of rotation (Torque - angle of
twist) relations for cylindrical members (shafts)
Both shear stress and shear strain vary linearly
with increasing radial distance in the cross

Homework
In ENSC2001 Motion you studied centre of mass (centroids), rotational
inertia, moments of inertia, parallel axis theorem to calculate the rotational
inertia value about an axis which does not pass through the centre of mass. The
revision and appl

Bending of composite
members (several materials)
Dr Elena Pasternak and Dr Igor Shufrin
Slide 40
Bending of composite
members (several materials)
The derivations in sl 19-25 were based on the assumption of a homogeneous
material (Youngs moduli E). In this

Stress concentration factors
for flat bars in pure bending,
Beer et al (1992)
Compare with sl 70.
Dr Elena Pasternak and Dr Igor Shufrin
Frocht, M. M. (1936) Photoelastic studies in stress
concentration, Mechanical Engineering, August 1936,
485-489.
Slide

When normal stress causes
shear strain?
Dr Elena Pasternak
Slide 37
Relationship between Youngs
modulus E, Poissons ratio
and shear modulus G
Because normal stress causes
shear strain on certain planes,
there are must be a relationship
between Youngs mod

Plastic deformations in pure
bending
Previously an elastic material behaviour was assumed
(Hookes law). As a result (sl 33):
xx =
Mzy
Iz
Independent of the material behaviour normal strain varies
linearly with the distance y from the neutral surface:
y

Summary
Stress concentration
1. Understanding of stress concentrations is extremely important in the design
of aircraft, ships, machines and machine components. (The peak stress at
the stress concentration is compared with the allowable stress.)
2. Signif

Mechanical properties of
materials
=f()
We need to know and understand the material
properties to design machines, machine compoenets,
structures, etc!
The standard way used in the discipline is to place
samples (specimens) in the testing machines, applie

Solid Mechanics
ENSC3004
Stress and Strain in 3D
Dr Elena Pasternak
Slide 1
Stress in 3D
Dr Elena Pasternak
Slide 2
1
Plan
Stress
vector
Stress (Stress tensor, matrix 3x3)
relationship with normal, shear force
and bending and torsional moments
Stress

Concrete
Beer et al (2012)
Dr Elena Pasternak
Slide 79
Fatigue
Fatigue properties are shown on N diagrams.
A member may fail due to fatigue at
stress levels significantly below
the ultimate strength if subjected
to many loading cycles.
Fig. 2.16 Typical -

Normal and shear stress vs angle.
Maximum normal and shear
stress
Maximum normal stress is on the plane with normal oriented at =0.
Maximum shear stress is on the plane oriented at =45 degrees.
Gere and Goodno (2009)
Dr Elena Pasternak
Slide 21
Normal and

Learning outcomes
(4) understand the relationship between stress and strain
(Generalised Hookes Law) in two dimensions and three
dimensions;
(5) understand the relationship between Poissons ratio,
Youngs modulus, shear modulus and bulk modulus
(10) und

Strain in 3D
Dr Elena Pasternak
Slide 28
Small deformation. Infinitesimal
strain
The small deformation theory of continuum mechanics has as
its basic condition the requirement that the displacement
gradients be small compared to unity.
ui
< 1
x j
Dr Elena

Summary on generalised
Hookes law
1) Generalised Hookes law describes linear elastic material
response to multiaxial loading (3D) in isotropic solid body. You
can use it for 2D (biaxial loading, plane stress and plane strain
problems) and 1D (uniaxial loa

Solid Mechanics
ENSC3004
Tutorial 4
Solutions
Dr Elena Pasternak
Slide 1
Expectations on preparation
for tutorials (for students)
The preparation required for tutorials is to
read and revise the preceding lecture notes,
visualiser notes and tutorial solut

Unsymmetric bending, Beer et
al (2012)
Unsymmetric
bending
moment
Resolving unsymmetric bending
moment into components along the y
and z axes
xx =
xx =
Mzy
Iz
M yz
Iy
Dr Elena Pasternak and Dr Igor Shufrin
Slide 97
Neutral axis (N.A.)
y
M
M z = M cos ,

Solid Mechanics
ENSC3004
Pure Bending
Dr Elena Pasternak and Dr Igor Shufrin
Slide 1
Plan
Bending another major concept in the discipline used in the
design of many machine and structural components (eg, beams
and girders huge beams used in construction t

Solid Mechanics
EN SC3004
Tutorial 5
Solutions
.,. is. Drilenamstemak, 7 7
Expectations on preparation
for tutorials (for students)
The preparation required for tutorials is to
read and revise the preceding lecture notes,
Visualiser

Solid Mechanics
EN SC3004
Tutorial 2
Solutions
Expectations on preparation
for tutorials (for students)
The preparation required for tutorials is to
read and revise the preceding lecture notes,
Visualiser notes and tutorial solutions from the
previous wee

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