Thursday 6pm: Talk on International Justice
Choose a specific answerable question
e.g. I am interested in whether Kant thinks _ or no
Focus on a section we read in class and then around 3 secondary sources
Chapter Two Part 1-Transition from Popular Moral Philosophy to a Metaphysics of Morals
17. The need for a priori method in ethics
There are no clear examples of actions motivated purely by duty
It is hard to judge whether even are own actions are
1. A possible Rawlsian Response to Sen
a. Sen's criticism of primary goods as currency
i. Sen thinks the primary goods are not the currency of distributive justice.
What is important in distributive justice is what people can do in and w
Wrapping Up: Who is Answerable to the Demands of Justice?
1. Two Objections to Cohen:
a. The ethos of justice as a belief about what inequalities are just (p. 8)
i. An ethos of justice is a belief about justice
ii. Either talented people e
On the common saying that may be correct in theory, but it is of no use in practice-Immanuel
Theory: a sum of rules that are thought of as principles having a certain generality
Abstraction is made from the general principles to specific application
Metaphysics of Morals, Introduction to the doctrine of Virtue Part 1-Immanuel Kant
Doctrine of the right: deals with duties that can be given by external laws (political and legal
Deals only with the formal conditions of outer freedom (the consi
Chapter 2 Part 2
34. The autonomy formulation
The humanity as an end formulation must be derived from pure reason:
1. Because it is universal it could not have been derived just from experience
2. Humanity as an end is objective, not subjective
Introduction to the Doctrine of the Right Part 1
A. What the Doctrine of the Right is
The doctrine of the right: the sum of those laws for which an external lawgiving is possible
Doctrine of the positive right: the sum those laws for which an external law
Introduction to the Doctrine of the Right Part 2
Division of the Metaphysics of Morals as a whole
Two types of duties:
1. Duties of right: external lawgiving can enforce them
2. Duties of virtue: external lawgiving cannot enforce them because they have
Metaphysics of Morals, Introduction to the doctrine of Virtue Part 2-Immanuel Kant
B. The Happiness of Other
Seeking personal happiness is not a duty because it is natural to seek your own personal
Further, Kant thinks happiness is a means for
What is a state for Kant?
Presumably Nazi German is not a state
Would Apartheid S. Africa be a state? Would the US pre-women's liberation still be a
Woman are not equal citizens for Kant because they are not (financially)
Rawls-Who is answerable to justice
Wrapping Up-Topic 3: Constructivism
1. Lexical priority to Liberty principle (chpt 3)
a. No tradeoffs are allowed between liberty and everything else
b. Free persons give priority to preserving their liberty.
i. Free per
What does Rawls mean by expected social goods (p. 79)?
He means something similar to expected social utility
What does Rawls mean by a principle of redress (p.86)?
Ben doesnt think that Rawls would be in favour of affirmative ac
What who is accountable to the demands of justice for Rawls?
Justice only applies to the basic structure
Individuals only have to support just institutions and create them if they do not exist yet
What is the basic structure for
Types of principles:
1. Fact-sensitive principle
2. Fact-insensitive principle
3. Principles of justice
4. Principles that are not of justice
Cohen's Objection: if the principle A is not based on justice, a principle derived from A
How can Rawls put the right before the good?
In the original position no one knows what their conception of the good life is but Rawls
posits that everyone wants broad primary goods
They will use their desire of primary goods to determine which secondar
Duty vs obligation:
Duties are type: e.g. duty for beneficent, duty for self-improvement
Obligations are tokens of duties: e.g. give a specific gift to A, improve skill X
Some duties only become obligations on specific circumstances.
If to give an
Recap of Lecture
2 types of moral philosophy:
1. Law (duties of right)
2. Ethics (duties of virtue)
Rawls-A theory of Justice
Rawls claims he is a Kantian but ignores his political writing on the Metaphysics of
Lecture 2-Kant on duties of right and punishment
All duties involve necessitation
Sometimes you have a duty to do things you don't want to do
Since we are not perfect beings there can be conflict in our minds (a conflict
between what we want to d
Why care about Kant?
He had a huge influence on Rawls
Rawls tries to build on the social contract developed by Locke and Kant. He
tries to create a theory of the social contract that is not open to the fatal objections that face
Types of luck (Dworkin's distinction):
1. Brute luck:
a. Risks or opportunities you subject yourself to without much thought
b. e.g. walking down the street you risk being hit by a drunk driver or finding a pot
Lecture 4-Kant, theory and practice
Purpose of Kant's essay: attack the common saying "that may be correct in theory, but is of no
use in practice"
We're going to focus on the preface and S.2
S.2 is particularly directed against Hobbes
Hobbes said citiz
Justice vs. legitimate:
Imagine a society that is governed by Rawls's two principles but does not explain its
justification to the people.
It would appear to be just but not legitimate.
Rawls does not think Justice vs legitimacy
Lecture 11-Reasonable Disagreement and the Unreasonable
1. Nussbaum on Political Liberalism
a. Understanding reasonableness
i. Reasonableness becomes important when we try to differentiate
between political liberalism and comprehensive liberalism
Lecture 5-Rawls & Constructivism
Does Kant leave any room for disagreement between what are duties of right and what are
duties of virtue?
No. Kant thinks there are firm criteria that outline the difference.
*everyone who has a moral theory is goin
Lecture 3-Kant on property rights
Property Rights and External objects
External objects: physical objects external from your body e.g. apples, land,
Thesis: it is possible to have something external as mine even thought I am not in possession of
Rawls on Luck equalitarianism:
In a TJ he doesn't directly respond to luck equalitarianism
He does say how much effort you put forth is partly an issue of luck
Part 2 of Political liberalism
Schelfer has a Rawlsian response to luck ineqalitarianism