Describe the central visual pathways.
The visual pathways begin where light hits the rods and cones of the retina. The
stimulus is received and a signal is sent down the optic nerve through the optic foramen to the
1. Describe and identify key features of the oral cavity found in the main domestic species.
It can be divided by the teeth and jaws into the outer vestibule, which is bounded by the
lips and cheeks, and the central mouth cavity proper, which is medial to
75. Describe how infectious disease can be diagnosed in animals by detecting antigen in biological
samples or by measuring immune responses in blood.
Infectious diseases can be diagnosed by detecting antigen or antibody. The presence of
antigen in a biolo
Describe the estrus cycle of rodents and rabbits.
All rodents are polyestrous and have spontaneous ovulation. Hystricomorphs have
precoccial young. Guinea pigs are non-seasonally polyestrous, while chinchillas are seasonally
polyestrous. Myomorphs an
1. Describe the location of the urinary bladder and be able to palpate it as appropriate.
2. Locate the kidneys in various species and be able to palpate them as appropriate.
3. Locate and palpate on the live animals the epaxial muscles as functional grou