Biol. 202: Molecular & Cellular Biology Water, Acids, Bases, and Buffers Lecture #2 Some Basic Chemical Concepts for Studying Biology Campbell and Reece Chapter 3; pp 4657
Describe why H2O is polar.
Describe why solid H2O is less dense than l
All matter that exists in our universe, including us, is composed of basic substances called elements.
An atom is the smallest physical unit of a sample of an element. Atoms are composed of three
subatomic particles, each with its own unique properties.
The endocrine system is related to the nervous system and the two act in concert to ensure that the
complex functions of the body are regulated and coordinated properly, and that homeostasis is
maintained. The endocrine system sends messages from one part
Since humans (and all vertebrates) are heterotrophs, we must obtain food from the environment by
eating plant or animal tissue. This food contains nutrients, which are needed for a variety of functions:
to supply energy, raw materials for building new mol
The urinary system is a special excretory system that plays several roles in maintaining homeostasis.
A primary function is the excretion of urea, a major nitrogen-containing waste product derived from the
catabolism of amino acids. More generally, this s
We noted in our discussion of digestion that humans, along with other vertebrates, are heterotrophs,
and thus must obtain organic molecules from the environment to supply them with energy. That energy
is released by a process of oxidation, which requires
As noted earlier, the lymphatic system is intimately connected with the cardiovascular system. Its
major functions include the drainage and return of tissue fluid to the cardiovascular system and the
protection of the body against infection.
We saw in a p
The cardiovascular system can be thought of as comprised of three major components: blood, the fluid
connective tissue in which the many substances to be transported are dissolved; blood vessels,
through which the blood circulates; and a muscular heart, w
The major function of the skeletal system is to provide support for the body. In addition, it plays roles in
the storage of calcium; the production of blood cells; the facilitation of movement; and the protection of
important organs. Individual bones, com
Genes are defined as units of information that determine the specific characteristics we will exhibit.
They are carried by the chromosomes we studied in the last chapter, and since we have two of each
type of chromosome, it makes sense that we have two co
The major function of the muscular system is to allow movements, which can involve different types of
muscles and have varying effects. As we noted earlier, muscle tissue can be classified as one of three
major types: skeletal, smooth, or cardiac. Individ
We have already seen how sperm and eggs are produced, and noted the physical processes that
allow them to meet. When a sperm contacts an egg (in an oviduct), a chemical reaction takes place
between molecules on the surfaces of the sperm and egg. This bind
The chromosomes, as you may recall, are structures located in a cells nucleus that carry the genes,
which are made of DNA. Therefore, chromosomes are in essence the cellular carriers of information.
An organisms genome consists of all of the chromosomes a
The male reproductive system is composed of the primary sex organs, the testes, and a variety of
accessory organs that function in the transportation and maintenance of sperm cells. The testes play
the major role in the production of functional sperm cell
Anatomy and physiology are disciplines that are usually studied together and deal with the examination
of living organisms in an important way. Earlier, the importance of structure and function and their
relationship was emphasized; we must understand wha
Our discussion of the cell must begin with two principles stated in The Cell Theory:
The cell is the basic unit of life.
New cells can only arise from preexisting cells.
In this chapter, we will explore the structure and function of eukaryotic cells, spec
We are initially faced with a basic question: what is life, anyway? Intuitively, we tend to know life when
we see it, but it is actually quite difficult to come up with a definition. What we can do is to take note of
certain characteristics that
Biopolymers: Carbohydrates and Lipids
Lecture #4 Campbell: Chapter 5, pages 68 91 A. Biopolymers B. Carbohydrates C. Lipids D. Amino Acids and Proteins E. DNA and RNA
Nisson Schechter Office Hours: M,W,F 3:00 5:00 Health Sciences Cen
Remember EXAM #1 is approaching rapidly.
Biol. 202: Molecular & Cellular Biology
Macromolecules Lecture #6 Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA Campbell and Reece Chapter 5; pp 86 91
1. Recognize the structures of the nucleotide monomers and name them. 2. Know the
Lecture #7 A Tour of the Cell
Campbell and Reece (8th edition) Chapter 6 Pages 94 124
Differentiate between prokaryote vs. eukaryote cells. Define cytoplasm. Describe the role of centrifugation in cell biology.
Describe the functio
BIO 101 FINAL FALL 2009
1. About 12 to 24 hours after the last meal, a persons blood sugar level normally varies
from 60 to 90 milligrams per 100 milliliters of blood, though it may rise to 130mg/ml after
meals high in carbohydrates. That the blood sugar
BIO 101 FINAL FALL 2010
1. Which karyotype(s) shows a normal male individual (i.e., a male individual with no
trisomies or monosomies)?
A. A and B
B. B only
C. C only
D. D only
E. A, B, C & D
2. Which karyotype(s) shows an individual with Turn
BIO 101 FINAL SPING 2010
1. Normal blood pressure is considered to be 120/80 mm Hg. 120 mm
Hg is known as the systolic pressure. With what cardiac event is the
systolic pressure associated?
A. The contraction of the left and right atria
B. The entrance of
BIO 101 HUMAN BIOLOGY
Midterm Exam 2 FALL 2010
Please fill in your name and (SOLAR) ID number on your answer sheet
before starting. Do not write anything under the column marked
birthdate! Keep the opscan sheet that came with your test and do not
BIO 101 HUMAN BIOLOGY
Midterm Exam 2 Spring 2012
Please fill in your name and ID number on your answer sheet before
starting. Keep the opscan sheet that came with your test and do not use
ANY other opscan form or you risk a misgrading.
Answers to the mult
1. Which of the following would NOT be considered a part of the central nervous system?
C. medulla oblongata
D. spinal nerves
E. cerebral cortex
2. The center for balance and co-ordination in the brain is the
1. As discussed in class, the medulla oblongata is basically the same as the:
C. spinal cord
2. The portion of the neuron that carries information towards the cell body is the:
1. What are the most numerous blood cells in the body?
D. white blood cells
2. Red blood cells contain large quantities of the protein called _, responsible
for giving the cells their red color an
The nervous system is composed mainly of cells called neurons, which are highly specialized to be
able to sense certain aspects of their surroundings and to respond by transmitting electrical impulses.
All neurons follow a generalized structural plan. The
All organisms must be able to gather information about their external environment, so that they may be
aware of the surrounding conditions and formulate an appropriate response, as we have already
discussed. We also know that sensory pathways begin with s