Chapter 4: Continuous
Distributions
Probability and Statistics for Science and Engineering
with Examples in R
Hongshik Ahn
(1) Probability Density
A r.v. X is continuous if it represents some measurement on a
continuous scale.
Let X be a continuous r.v.
Chapter 3: Discrete
Distributions
Probability and Statistics for Science and Engineering
with Examples in R
Hongshik Ahn
(1) Random Variable (r.v.)
Definition: any function that assigns a numerical value to each possible
outcome of an experiment.
Example
Chapter 8: BenefitCost Analysis: Costs
Questions
How do environmental programs affect growth rates;
such as GDP?
How are costs distributed among different social
groups; issue of equity or fairness?
Cost analysis is done on many levels.
local program
Chapter 6: Frameworks of Analysis
Impact analysis examines the effects of any actual or
proposed policy.
EIA [environmental impact analysis] studies significant
environmental repercussions stemming from some
course of action.
NEPA [ National Environmen
Use the graps below and sketch the MC for each firm. Shade the TC for each firm if the equi proportional method were
used. Cross hatch the TC ifthe equi marginal method were used.
1% F, n!
i
d
J k f 3:2? A_ 5' /
(:4 4 1-
Chapter 2
Probability
Probability and Statistics for Science and Engineering
with Examples in R
Hongshik Ahn
(1) Sample Spaces and Events
Experiment: Any action or process that
generates observations
Sample Space (S): The set of all possible
outcomes of t
Economic Efficiency
The concept that markets use a
minimum of resources to produce
output that is wanted by the society
1
Equity
The question of good or fair.
Equity is tied to income, wealth and
preferences.
The market system may not take into
conside
Environmental Public Policy Analysis
Problems arise when there is a
discrepancy between the
actual level of
environmental quality and
the preferred level.
Changes peoples behavior;
both the production and
consumption sides of the
system.
1
Available Polic
Name _
Worksheet PPC
Economics
AKC
Use the production possibility curve [b] to answer the following questions.
1. A move along the curve from A to
B will result in a decrease of
_ units of _ and an
increase in _ units of
_.
2. A move from F to G will resu
Chapter 7: BenefitCost
Analysis: Benefits
Techniques developed to measure the
benefits of improvement in environmental
quality when there no available price.
Benefits are equal to what people are
willing to pay.
How is willingness to pay estimated in
s
Chapter 11: Command-andControl [CAC]
A CAC approach to public policy brings
Strategies:
The
Case
of
about desirable social behavior by
Standards
mandates
through laws and enforcement.
For environmental policy, CAC relies on
standards of various types tha
Chapter 1
Describing Data
Probability and Statistics for Science and Engineering
with Examples in R
Hongshik Ahn
(1) Display of Data by Graphs and Tables
(A) Frequency Distributions
Basic Steps
1. Find the minimum and the maximum values in the data set.
2
Chapter 10: Decentralized
Policies: Liability Laws, Property
Rights, Voluntary Action
Policy that essentially allows individuals
involved in a case of environmental
pollution to work it out themselves.
1
Advantages: De-centralized approach
The parties in
Chapter 5: The Economics
of Environmental Quality
Market Failure.
- Externalities
- Public goods and services
1
Policy Questions
What is the appropriate levels of pollution?
How should this appropriate level be put in
place.
What groups will receive th