The Einstein Model of a Solid
To describe a macrostate of an Einstein solid, we have to specify N and U, a
microstate ni for 3N oscillators.
Example: the macrostates of an Einstein Model with only one
Physics 303/573
Lecture 2
September 10, 2013
1
More on vectors
Last lecture, I tried to be abstract and general. Here are a few more concrete ways of
understanding some aspects of vectors.
1.1
The int
Lecture 8. Heat Engines and refrigerators (Ch. 4)
A heat engine any device that is capable of converting thermal
energy (heating) into mechanical energy (work). We will consider an
important class of
Lecture 6: 2nd and 3rd Laws of Thermodynamics
An isolated system, being initially in a nonequilibrium state, will evolve
from macropartitions with lower multiplicity (lower probability, lower
entropy
Lecture 1. Temperature, Ideal Gas (Ch. 1 )
Outline:
1.
Intro, the structure of the course
2.
Temperature
3.
The Ideal Gas Model
4.
Equipartition Theorem
Physics 306
Thermal Physics
Spring 2015
Profess
Lecture 2 The First Law of Thermodynamics (Ch.1)
Lecture 1  we introduced macroscopic parameters that describe
the state of a thermodynamic system (including temperature), the
equation of state f (P,
Lecture 3
Thermodynamic processes and Transport Properties
Chapter 1
2/10/2015
Tuesday, February 10, 15
Summary of quasistatic processes of ideal gas
Quasistatic
Process
Isobaric
(P=0)
Isochoric
(V=
The van der Waals Isotherms
Nk BT
aN 2
P=
2
(V Nb ) V
Nk BT $ 2 aN 2
abN 3
'
V 3 % Nb +
V
=0
"V +
P #
P
P
&
unstable
0
Nb
The Critical Point
The critical point is the unique point where both (dP/
dV)
Boltzmann Factor
S R
PS (1 )
= exp 1 2
= exp
k T
PS ( 2 )
B
k B
T is the characteristic of the heat reservoir
exp( k/kBT) is called the Boltzmann factor
exp 1
k T
PS ( 1 )
B
=
PS ( 2
Lecture 15. Thermodynamic Potentials, continuation (Ch. 5)
So far, we have been using the total internal energy U and, sometimes, the
enthalpy H to characterize various macroscopic systems. These func
Lecture 24. Degenerate Fermi Gas (Ch. 7)
We will consider the gas of fermions in the degenerate regime, where the density n
exceeds by far the quantum density nQ, or, in terms of energies, where the F
Lecture 18. The van der Waals Gas (Ch. 5)
Nobel 1910
The simplest model of a liquidgas phase
transition  the van der Waals model of
real gases grasps some essential
features of this phase transforma
The Course Summary
Ensemble
Macrostate
Probability
Thermodynamics
microcanonical
U, V, N
(T fluctuates)
1
Pn =
S (U ,V , N ) = kB ln
canonical
T, V, N
(U fluctuates)
grand
canonical
T, V,
(N, U fluc
Lecture 20 Overview Ch. 45
List of topics
!
1.
2.
3.
4.
Heat engines (and refrigerators)
Thermodynamic potentials
Phase transformations of pure substances and ClausiusClapeyron
Equation
van der Waal
Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory, and Statistical Mechanics
PHY 306

Spring 2014
Measure Pressure and Flow
Install the EMANT300 USB DAQ and Stepper Motor Training Kit
1. Connect up the EMANT300 USB DAQ and Pressure and Air pump Adaptor as shown.
EMANT300
USB DAQ
Pressure and Air p