The Einstein Model of a Solid
To describe a macrostate of an Einstein solid, we have to specify N and U, a
microstate ni for 3N oscillators.
Example: the macrostates of an Einstein Model with only one atom
(1,0) =1
(1,1) =3
(1,3) =10
(1,2) =6
The Mult
Physics 303/573
Lecture 2
September 10, 2013
1
More on vectors
Last lecture, I tried to be abstract and general. Here are a few more concrete ways of
understanding some aspects of vectors.
1.1
The interpretation of the scalar product
The scalar product of
Lecture 8. Heat Engines and refrigerators (Ch. 4)
A heat engine any device that is capable of converting thermal
energy (heating) into mechanical energy (work). We will consider an
important class of such devices whose operation is cyclic.
Heating the tra
Lecture 6: 2nd and 3rd Laws of Thermodynamics
An isolated system, being initially in a nonequilibrium state, will evolve
from macropartitions with lower multiplicity (lower probability, lower
entropy) to macropartitions with higher multiplicity (higher p
Lecture 1. Temperature, Ideal Gas (Ch. 1 )
Outline:
1.
Intro, the structure of the course
2.
Temperature
3.
The Ideal Gas Model
4.
Equipartition Theorem
Physics 306
Thermal Physics
Spring 2015
Professor: Marivi FernandezSerra
Office:
B139
email:
maria.
Lecture 2 The First Law of Thermodynamics (Ch.1)
Lecture 1  we introduced macroscopic parameters that describe
the state of a thermodynamic system (including temperature), the
equation of state f (P,V,T) = 0, and linked the internal energy of
the ideal g
Lecture 3
Thermodynamic processes and Transport Properties
Chapter 1
2/10/2015
Tuesday, February 10, 15
Summary of quasistatic processes of ideal gas
Quasistatic
Process
Isobaric
(P=0)
Isochoric
(V=0)
Isothermal
(T=0)
Adiabatic
(Q=0)
Tuesday, February 1
Lecture 16. Real Heat Engines and
refrigerators (Ch. 4)
Stirling heat engine
Internal combustion engine (Otto cycle)
Diesel engine
Steam engine (Rankine cycle)
Kitchen Refrigerator
Carnot Cycle
 is not very practical (too slow), but operates at the maxim
The van der Waals Isotherms
Nk BT
aN 2
P=
2
(V Nb ) V
Nk BT $ 2 aN 2
abN 3
'
V 3 % Nb +
V
=0
"V +
P #
P
P
&
unstable
0
Nb
The Critical Point
The critical point is the unique point where both (dP/
dV)T = 0 and (d2P/dV 2)T = 0 (see Pr. 5.48)
Critical param
Boltzmann Factor
S R
PS (1 )
= exp 1 2
= exp
k T
PS ( 2 )
B
k B
T is the characteristic of the heat reservoir
exp( k/kBT) is called the Boltzmann factor
exp 1
k T
PS ( 1 )
B
=
PS ( 2 )
exp 2
k T
B
This result shows that we do not
Lecture 15. Thermodynamic Potentials, continuation (Ch. 5)
So far, we have been using the total internal energy U and, sometimes, the
enthalpy H to characterize various macroscopic systems. These functions are called
the thermodynamic potentials: all the
Lecture 24. Degenerate Fermi Gas (Ch. 7)
We will consider the gas of fermions in the degenerate regime, where the density n
exceeds by far the quantum density nQ, or, in terms of energies, where the Fermi energy
exceeds by far the temperature. We have see
Lecture 18. The van der Waals Gas (Ch. 5)
Nobel 1910
The simplest model of a liquidgas phase
transition  the van der Waals model of
real gases grasps some essential
features of this phase transformation.
(Note that there is no such transformation
in the
The Course Summary
Ensemble
Macrostate
Probability
Thermodynamics
microcanonical
U, V, N
(T fluctuates)
1
Pn =
S (U ,V , N ) = kB ln
canonical
T, V, N
(U fluctuates)
grand
canonical
T, V,
(N, U fluctuate)
The grand potential
Pn =
Pn =
kBT ln Z
1
e
Z
1
Lecture 20 Overview Ch. 45
List of topics
!
1.
2.
3.
4.
Heat engines (and refrigerators)
Thermodynamic potentials
Phase transformations of pure substances and ClausiusClapeyron
Equation
van der Waals gases
Format of the second midterm: 4 problems with m
Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory, and Statistical Mechanics
PHY 306

Spring 2014
Measure Pressure and Flow
Install the EMANT300 USB DAQ and Stepper Motor Training Kit
1. Connect up the EMANT300 USB DAQ and Pressure and Air pump Adaptor as shown.
EMANT300
USB DAQ
Pressure and Air pump Adaptor
2. Before plugging in the USB cable to the