Regulation and Checkpoints
In vitro mitosis. What is in the frog egg cytoplasm?
The cell cycle is regulated by cyclical changes in the activity of Cdks [kinases]. These kinases thems
Progression form Mitosis to Cytokinesis
Exiting Mitosis The final stages of mitosis begin in anaphase when the mitotic spindle segregates the duplicated chromosomes. Mitotic exit is then completed by the disassembly of the spindle and pa
Translation Protein Synthesis
Decoding of genetic information
Translation Takes Place on a Ribosome
The mRNA and the polypeptide chain are colinear. The AUG near the 5' end of the mRNA encodes the N-terminus of the pr
Gene Regulation in Bacteria
There are 2 types of transcriptional control: Positive control, in which a regulatory protein acts as an activator, stimulating transcription; Negative control in which expression is controlled by a repressor that inhib
Fatty Acid Breakdown II
Lecture 35 Chapter 19-2 and 3
-oxidation of saturated Fatty AcylCoA with even numbers of carbons:
-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids requires extra steps: Two cases: 1. Unsaturation at odd number. 2. Unsaturation at even
Regulation depends on the purpose of a pathway Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism
Lecture 33 Chapters 14-4, 15-4C
Pathways for synthesis and degradation are separate, allowing reciprocal regulation:
Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis Glycogen breakdown
Long alkyl chains with carboxylic acid at one end. General forumula: CH3 -(CH2) n-COO(number from carboxylate) Stearic acid: saturated C18 18:0 Oleic acid: unsaturated C18 18:1 !9 (all natural double bonds are cis!) Linoleic acid: C18, t
Major fates of glucose in cells:
Lecture 32 Chapter 15, Sections 1-3
Glycogen structure: Polymer of glucose: (Glc-!1,4-Glc)n !1,6 branches about every 10 !1,4-linked Glc. Glucoses added and removed from non-reduci
Major fates of glucose in cells:
Lecture 31 Chapter 15, Section 4A, B
Net synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. Why do cells do this?
Normal adult needs ~160 g g
"Light reactions" of photosynthesis produce large amounts of NADPH and ATP in the Stroma
Lecture 30 Chapter 18-3
What to do with ATP and NADPH?
Use to "fix" carbon:
Use ATP and NADPH to polymerize CO2 (lowest energy form of C) i
Citric Acid Cycle II
Lecture 25 Chapter 16-4, 16-5
CAC is an Amphibolic Pathway
Amphibolic: both catabolic and anabolic functions.
Catabolic: oxidation of acetate to CO2. Anabolic: intermediates serve as precursors to other molecules.
Citric Acid Cycle 1
Lecture 24 Chapter 16-3
Citric Acid Cycle
Other names: Krebs cycle, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA). Circular pathway: all intermediates are "catalytic" (no net formation or consumption). Complete oxidation of Acetate to CO2.
Balanced equation for Glycolysis: Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+ -> 2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 H2O
Glucose from food.
Lecture 21 Chapter 14, Sections 3 and 5
ADP and Pi from constant breakdown of ATP. Where does NAD+ com
History of Glycolysis Glycolysis I
Lecture 20 Chapter 14 Sections 1 and 2
1850's: Pasteur showed yeast can ferment sugar to CO2 and ethanol, but he cannot replicate with extracts, proposes "vitalism". 1898: Hans and Eduard Buchner demonstrate yeast
Syllabus for BIO 361, Fall 2007
Lectures: MWF, 9:35-10:30, Union Auditorium Lect. Date Day Lecturer Topic Readings (Chapter-Section) 1 Sep 5 W SS Overview and Intro to Thermo Chapter 1-Section 4 2 Sep 7 F SS Water and Buffers Chapter 2-Sections 1, 2
EXAM 4 AND CUMULATIVE FINAL VERSION 1
NAME:_ ID:_ INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXAM 4 (pages 2-7): 1. Write your name and ID on pages 1-7 2. Write all answers in pen only 3. Limit your answers to the space provided Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page
NAME:_ ID:_ 1. Write Your name and ID on all pages 2. Write all answers in pen only 3. Make sure your exam has nine pages including this cover page
Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Total
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CUMULATIVE FINAL EXAM: VERSION 1 (MARK 1 IN FIRST COLUMN OF "DAY" ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS ON THE OPSCAN SHEET WITH PENCIL 1. You are separating amino acids and peptides on a column of amine-modified polystyrene beads. Which one of these emerges from the