Raw materials in
Unit operations
Mmaterials
M
StoredMMfMaterial Balances
ws p
Products out
Waste products
Underlying principle:
Law of conservation of mass
o Mass/matter can not be created or destroyed
Basic equation:
Input=output +accumulation-depletio

Class problems
1. A bottle contains 435 ml of ideal gas, under a pressure of 1.10 atm, at a
temperature of 30.0C. What will be the volume of gas under pressure of 0.734
atm and 5.00C?
2. Heat is applied to convert 5 kg ice at -10C to 100C vapor. Specific

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
All measurements have three parts: dimension, unit, and a number
Dimension: designate a physical entity under consideration (e.g., time, distance, weight).
Primary dimension: distance/length, time, mass, temperature,
Expression: leng

STEAM TABLES
Pressure
Pressure is the force exerted by fluid per unit area of the surface. SI unit: Pa (Pa=N/m 2)
Standard atmospheric pressure (atm): a pressure produced by a column of mercury 760 mm
high.
1 atm = 101.3 kPa = 14.7 psi = 760 mm Hg = 1.013

Minor Frictional loss, Pump
Minor losses
Minor losses () are due to various components in pipeline system, including:
Sudden contraction
Sudden expansion
Fittings (valves, tees, and elbows)
Sudden contraction
Where
when < 0.715
when > 0.715
If A1 is much

Material (Mass) Balances
Fanbin Kong
8/16/2013
Density
Mass per unit volume, =m/V.
dimension [M]/[L]3
SI unit: kg/m3 (also common g/cm3) 1 kg/m3 =1000g/cm3
Some density values (kg/m3): air 1.2, ice 916.7, fresh water 1000, aluminum 2700, lead 11340,
gol

Heat
Fanbin Kong 8/29/2013
Extensive property and intensive property
Extensive property is a physical property that scales with the size of a physical system.
Intensive property is a physical property independent of system size.
E.g. mass (Kg), volume V

Food Drying and Evaporation
0916/2013
Drying
Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food. Foods are dried
to inhibit microbial development and quality decay, and assist in saving transportation and storage
costs.
Met

Enthalpy Balance
Fanbin Kong 9/6/2013
Enthalpy (H)
H=Ei+PV
H: enthalpy (J), P: pressure (Pa), V: volume (m3)
Enthalpy is also called heat content.
It includes the internal energy Ei, which is the energy required to create a system, and the
amount of en

Introduction to
Food Process Engineering
Dr. Muanmai Apintanapong
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 081-844-0799
Engineer Units
SI Base Units
Parameter
Sy
mbol
N
ame
m
length
l.
mass
ki
m
logram
time
electric current
t
I
etre
se
cond
a
mpere
Unit
Symbol
m
kg
s

Assignment (due Nov. 11th)
Video:
Heat exchangers principles
http:/www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLJizTuwqVA&list=PL3AFD591FEF8A3EA4
Reading:
Textbook: section 4.1, and 4.4.7
Questions:
1. What are the important factors affecting the heat transfer efficiency in

Fall 2011
FDST 4050L/6050L
Laboratory 2
Mass Balance in a Vacuum Kettle
Objectives:
1. To be acquainted with the operation of a steam jacketed vacuum kettle
2. To practice calculation of material balance on apple juice concentration
3. To measure solids c

Fall 2011
FDST 4050L/6050L
Laboratory 1
Applications of Computer Spreadsheets in Data Analysis
Computer spreadsheets can greatly simplify many kinds of data analysis and graphing. Properly designed
graphs contribute to the professional appearance of repor

Thermodynamics (cond)
1st Law of thermodynamics
Energy can not be created or destroyed but energy does change form
General form
The total change in energy of a closed system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the
work done by the system.
E= Ef

Energy Balance
Specific property
Amount of a property per unit mass = (Property) / (Amount (Mass, Mole number,
)
Intensive property
E.g. Specific volume (m3/Kg), specific internal energy (J/Kg); specific enthalpy
(J/mol)
Enthalpy
H=Ei+PV
H: enthalpy (

Food Drying and Evaporation
Drying
Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food. Foods are dried
to inhibit microbial development and quality decay, and assist in saving transportation and storage
costs.
Methods of dr

Mechanical energy balance, Bernoulli equation
Energy balance for an open system
For a steady flow system, energy of a process stream (J) includes internal energy (Ei), potential
energy (EPE=mgz), kinetic energy (EkE=mu22), and pressure energy (PV).
Total

Pressure, perfect gas law and enthalpy
Pressure: force exerted by fluid per unit area of the surface.
SI unit: Pascal (Pa=N/m2)
1 bar = 105 Pa =0.1 MPa = 100 kPa
Standard atmospheric pressure: a pressure produced by a column of mercury 760 mm high.
1 a

Due Date: August 22, 2011
FDST 4050/6050
Problem Set #1
Significant figures:
1. Give the correct number of significant figures for 3300, 3300., 0.0089, 0.03010
2. 2. Give the answer to the correct number of significant figures:
7710 + 21.80 + 240 = ?
(5.1

Due Date: August 29, 2011
FDST 4050/6050
Problem Set #2
1. Sucrose crystals are being produced in a crystallizer by cooling 1000 kg of 76% sucrose
solution to 15 C. If the saturated solution at 15 C contains 66% sucrose, what is the
amount of sucrose crys

STEAM TABLES
REVIEW OF DEFINITIONS AND UNITS
Specific volume (V)
V=V/m=1/ . Unit: m3/kg
Internal energy (Ei)
Internal energy is the sum of the kinetic energy due to molecular motion and potential
energy intermolecular attractive (or repulsive) forces.
Ent

Thermodynamics
Definition of thermodynamics
Thermodynamics is the branch of science which deals with
, and their
, and the properties of the substances which are related to work and heat transfer.
Law of thermodynamics is the basis for many engineering ca

High accuracy low precision AND UNITS
High precisionDIMENSIONS
low accuracy
All measurements have three parts:
,
, and a number
Dimension: designate a physical entity under consideration (e.g., time, distance, weight).
Primary dimension: distance/length,

6
St eam
Cooling wat er
St eam Condensat e
Cooling wat er exit
1
Fall 2011
#1
#2
2
FDST 4050L/6050L
3
4
Laboratory 3
5
Energy Balance in a Pasteur ization System
7
T5
Objectives:
T2
T1
1. To be acquainted with the principle and operation of a pasteurizati

Energy Balance
Why Energy balance?
Power requirement for a pump
Heat / Work calculation for a desired change
Freezing/heating process
Requirement of steam
Requirement of energies for each apparatus
Energy
_
Equivalent to the ability to exert pulls or push