TA: Megan Prescott
Macromolecules 1 Lab Report
Organic Molecules Found in Dietary Supplements
My report focused on a detailed analysis of three dietary supplements that served to
discover their organic molecular composition. The p
TA: Megan Prescott
Macromolecules 2 Lab Report
Determining the Concentration of Starch Found in Dietary Supplements
My report focused on another detailed analysis of the three dietary supplements the health club is being
The maximum potential generated by the solid-solution interface. Determines whether
particles will be aqueous or coagulate.
Solid-solution interface with a fixed double layer. Each layer is unimolecular.
What is wrong with t
When the macro-ion is negatively charged, will Y be greater or less than 1? Will
the membrane potential be positive or negative?
Y >1. The membrane potential will be positive.
What is the main problem with the Donnan potential model? What is the
When is a reaction autocatalytic?
When the product shows up in the rate law with a positive exponent. When the
product is formed and helps in catalyzing more of itself.
What is the Lotka-Volterra Mechanism
This mechanism looks at the concentration of prod
What is the transported quantity for viscosity?
The rate of change of a quantity per area per time.
What drives flux?
What are the units for charge flux?
How do you determine the gradient of flux?
The gradient of
What is matter?
anything that has mass and takes up space
What is an element?
is a pure substance that can not be change into a simple of matter by any chemical
What is the law of conservation of matter and energy?
matter can neither be created
What has to be assumed for boiling point elevation calculations?
1. solute is nonvolatile
2. ideal solution
4. constant pressure
5. constant Hvap
Which is larger, kf or kb?
Kf is always larger than Kb for all solvents, because Hfus is always sma
What is Kohlraush's law of independent migration?
It states that at infinite dilution, all ions are completely dissociated and act
independently of each other. This works for both strong and weak electrolytes.
Equation for m on equation sheet.
What is the
Vapor Pressure Table H
Dotted line represents the boiling point of the 4 liquids at Standard Pressure of 101.3
Study of all chemicals containing carbon
All of the bonds are single bonds
What is G? Units?
What is R? Units?
What is (for molar conductivity calculations)? Units?
What is k (for molar conductivity calculations)? Units?
What are the units
Use the random walk method.
What does Stokes' Law calculate?
The frictional coefficient for a spherical molecule (f). Can be used to determine the
drag force on that molecule in solution.
What does the Einstein equation calculate? How is it related to the
with applied stress, viscosity decreases
with applied stress, viscosity increases
What Reynolds number would be indicative of laminar flow?
Re < 2000
What Reynolds number would be indicative of turbulent flow?
Re > 3500
What are the
If a reaction is exothermic and the system is closed, as T , k, then T more, etc.
Chain Branching Reactions - 4 stages?
4 stages: initiation, propagation, branching, and deactivation.
If pressure is low, what will happen in a chain-bran
capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)
Factors that effect solubility
Increase in Temp, stirring, & particle size (increased surface area) will all increase
solubility and increase rate of reaction.
The square root of the average velocities. Gives the average speed of gaseous
What is Cmp?
Cmp is the most probable speed, associated with the highest point on the Maxwell
What is Cave?
Cave is the average speed. The sum of t
Single Replacement Reaction
A reaction in which a single element replaces an element in a compound., A + BX ->
AX + B
Double Replacement Reaction
Reaction involving two ionic compounds where the positive ion from one compound
combines with the negative io
The statistical distribution of charge around ion j (how many particles are around its
What is ionic strength?
The ionic strength characterizes how many ionic species exist in a given solution.
The sum of the electric po
study of the properties of matter and the changes that occur in its unit
What is organic chemistry?
study of carbon containing compounds
What is inorganic chemistry?
The study of non-organic substances, many of which have organic fragments bonded
to the m
Principle Energy Levels
energy levels of an atom "shells". Energy increases further from the nucleus
Electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
Lewis dot structures
diagrams that show valence electrons as dots
Bright line spectru
Plot lnk vs 1/T. If a straight line is formed, it fits the Arrhenius equation.
Even with good data, you sometimes won't get a linear plot for the Arrhenius
equation. What are the complications to linearity?
1. A is temperature dependent
2. Ea is temperatu
the number of entities involved in the collision
How do you determine the yield of B in a branching reaction?
Yield = k1/(k1+k2)
You can just pull this value from the equation of B for branching reactions.
When can you use the steady state ap
Elements along the staircase. Have properties of both metals and nonmetals. Ex:
Group 1 on PT. One valence electron that is easily removed to form a POSITIVE
IONS. Highly reactive and form stable compounds.
Alkali Earth Me
two nonmetal atoms combined form a covalent compound called a
Anything that has mass and takes up space
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
A pure substance made of tw
increase the viscosity of a solution
Decrease the viscosity of a solution. Tend to be larger ions with small charges.
How do you modify colligative property equations so that they work for
Flood A or B so it's in excess.
ex. flood A. If = 1, it's called pseudo first order.
if = 2, it's called pseudo second order.
plot lnA vs t. If linear, first order. If not linear, not first order.
What is order?
How do you determine sphericality?
If f/f = 1, the molecule is a sphere.
If f/f > 1, the molecule is not a sphere.
How do particles move through solvent? What kind of particle moves fastest
through solvent? What does that have to do with the f