To accomplish with the described goal, the ANSI/ISA S77.20-1993 Fossil-Fuel Power Plant
Simulators Functional Requirements norm was adopted as a design specification.
The models for operation training are not frequently reported in the literature because
surface of the bond coating during high temperature corrosion at 900C (Fig.6).
Table I presents the life of uncoated superalloy, smart coating as well as different
thicknesses of zirconia based TBCs at 900C in simulating gas turbine engine environments.
interface for the communication. A total of 20 control screens, including the index, and as
many tendencies displays as needed are available for the operator.
The main control screen of the operator (a replica of the Siemens control) is shown in Figure 7.
750C because of a high volatility of the noble metals (Arai et al. 1986). Use of palladium as
the active component in the high-temperature oxidation of methane is most promising. This
is because palladium has a high specific activity in this reaction (Bur
greater than the effect of the gas control
valves treating to keep the charge. At
about 3660 s the pressure increases and
then descents because the aperture of the
gas oscillate due the control algorithm.
3680 - 4200 Pressure loss ends - Simulation
2H2O proceeding on each individual catalyst. The calculations were performed for typical
operation conditions of the CCC (Parmon et al., 2007): methane concentration in methane
air mixture 1.5 vol.%, GHSV = 500040,000 h-1 and inlet temperature 723873 K. T
combustion process to achieve the design turbine inlet temperature (4). The hot gases then
expand through the turbine (5) and enter the regenerator. Given their fairly high
temperature at the power unit exit (6), the exhausts c
el and th are the electrical and thermal efficiencies of the cogeneration system
averaged over a given period; and
el _ ref and th _ ref are the reference values of efficiency for separate production of
electrical and thermal energy.
A positive value of
Our main purpose is to use existing gases during chemical processes, in order to drive a
turbine. Processes, which operate under high pressures, followed the cleaning at low
pressures, can be exploited for electricity cogeneration. The high operating pres
efficiency at a minor increase of pressure drop.
3. two ring shaped catalysts with different catalytic activity. In this case, a short bed
(ca.10%) of the highly active Pd-Ce-catalyst is located in the upstream section at low
temperature, and it initiates
The second kind of node is those that is a frontier of the flows and pressures network. Here,
the state variables depend on each particular case.
In this category are the boilers, condenser, deaerators, and other equipments relat
catalyst was higher than that of the catalysts without Pd. Meanwhile, the stability of this
catalyst was comparable to that of MnLaAl2O3 being determined by the Mn
hexaaluminate phase. The stability of these catalysts was much higher than that of the
2 wt.% Pd at the entrance zone. Most of the package consisted of MnLaAl 2O3 catalyst.
Both catalysts were shaped as 7.5 mm 7.5 mm 2.5 mm rings. PdMnLaAl 2O3 catalyst
in the form of 45 mm spherical granules was placed in the downstream part of the catalyst
Performance and results
As expected, the optimization process highlighted that the ambient water condensing
technology maximizes the power production of all bottoming cycle configurations with all
the organic fluids studied, thus also maximizing both the
inferior in diagnosis accuracy to the Bayesian approach, because the latter in its turn is
known as the best recognition technique if we use the criterion of a correct decision
probability. Additionally, neural networks do not need the simplifications of
+ N2(_,_,_,L, z, t)dN1 dz(_,_,_,L, z, t) (20.21)
The denominator D(_, _, _, L, z, t) is approached in the same manner
as the numerator by separation into four parts Di(_, _, _, L, z, t), for
i = 1, 2, 3, 4:
D(_, _, _, L, z, t) = L
Turb Stage 1
Rotor Air Cooler
Combustion gas Air Fuel gas
Fig. 2. Schematic gas turbine-compressor-combustor diagram.
3. The importance of training based on simulators
Some of the significa
of every individual input vector. In the back-propagation algorithm the error between the
target and actual output vectors is propagated backwards to correct the weights and biases.
The correction is repeated successively for all available inputs and targ
Ex In Ex Out
EG Electrical Generator GC Gas Compressor
GT Gas Turbine CC Combustion Chamber
R Regenerator C Condenser
VT Vapour Turbine HRVG Heat Recovery Vapour Generator
Fig. 14. Layout of the micro combined plant
efficiency. Figures 26 to 28 report examples of the preliminary results obtained with the
model. In particular, Figures 26 and 27 show electrical power and efficiency, respectively, as
a function of the injected steam mass flow rate in fixed thermodynamic
inlet temperature and an increase of GHSV. For example, at 20,000 h -1 the inlet temperature
can be reduced from 873 to 723 K. For the package operation at a higher GHSV (30,000 h -1),
an increase of the inlet temperature to 773 K is required. It should b
The idea is proposed to develop on the basis of the thermodynamic model a new model that
takes gradual engine performance degradation in consideration. Like the polynomial model
of a degraded engine described in section 3.3, such a model has an additional
for optimization of the design of a catalytic package for use in CCC. The catalysts based on
manganesehexaaluminate showed high efficiency and thermal stability during combustion
of natural gas for more than 200 h at the temperature in the catalyst bed as