Press. Kanji GK (1999), 100 Statistical Tests. Sage Publications Ltd. Kenny
DA (1979), Correlation and Causality. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lavalle IH
(1970), An Introduction to Probability, Decision and Inference. Holt,
Rinehart & Winston, Inc.
Mason RL, G
missing data. These can be simply coding missing data by symbolic
numbers or tags, such as
operations. Another possibility is the substitution of missing data by
average values of the respective variables. Yet another solution is to
simply remove objects
secondary school, which language did you use? 0 = Pascal; 1 = Basic; 2 =
other. Source: J Marques de S, Dep. Engenharia Electrotcnica e de
Computadores, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Porto,
Portugal. concerning the teaching of Programmin
methods: H: Half area: the vector that bisects the QRS loop into two
equal areas. A: Amplitude: the vector computed with the maximum
amplitudes in two orthogonal directions (x, y). I: Integral: The vector
computed with the signal areas along (x, y). Sourc
52112 standard (kg/cm2). MVAP: Volumetric weight, DIN 52102
standard (Kg/m3). AAPN: Water absorption at NP conditions, DIN
52103 standard (%). PAOA: Apparent porosity, LNEC E-216-1968
standard (%). CDLT: Thermal linear expansion coefficient (x 10-6/C).
exponential density with spread factor
exponential distribution with spread factor
w , Weibull density with parameters , W , Weibull
distribution with parameters , a,p Gamma density with
parameters a, p a,p Gamma distribution with parameters a, p p,q
The wandering voltage signal one can measure in an open electrical
resistance is an instance of a thermal noise process (with an ensemble
of infinitely many continuous signals); The succession of face values
when tossing n times a die is an instance of a
Sale1: Date that a car was sold. Complaint: Date that a complaint about
any type of malfunctioning was presented for the first time. Sale2: Last
date that a car accessory was purchased (unrelated to the complaint).
Lost: Lost contact during the study? Tru
Gardner MJ, Altman DG (1989), Statistics with Confidence Confidence
Intervals and Statistical Guidelines. British Medical Journal. Gibbons JD
(1985), Nonparametrical Statistic Inference. Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Hesterberg T, Monaghan S, Moore DS, Clipson A, E
Tradenames EXCEL Microsoft Corporation MATLAB The MathWorks,
Inc. SPSS SPSS, Inc. STATISTICA Statsoft, Inc. WINDOWS Microsoft
1.1 Deterministic Data and Random Data
Our daily experience teaches us that some data are generated in
IEEE Tr. Info. Theory, 18:618-626. Fu KS (1982), Introduction. In: Fu KS
(ed) Applications of Pattern Recognition. CRC Press Inc., pp. 2-13.
Distributions. IEEE Tr. Comp., 18:220-229. Fukunaga K (1990),
Introduction to Statistical Pattern Recognition. Aca
The Infarct.xls file contains the following measurements performed on
64 patients with myocardial infarction: EF: Ejection Fraction = (dyastolic
volume - systolic volume)/dyastolic volume, evaluated on
echocardiographic images. CK: Maximum value of creati
dimensional). However, the probability that it hits the bulls-eye area
1.5 Beyond a Reasonable Doubt. 13
Therefore, the probability density function, f(x), must be such that: = D
dx xf 1 )( , where D is the domain of the random variable. Simil
to Gould Gtheta Latitude according to Gould Hphi Longitude according
to Hall Htheta Latitude according to Hall Source: Chase EHS, The
Astronomical Journal, 1889.
E.28 Stock Exchange
The Stock Exchange.xls file contains data from daily share values of
MODE Histogram mode NMAX Number of histogram peaks VAR
Histogram variance MEDIAN Histogram median WIDTH Histogram
width TEND Histogram tendency: 1= left assym.; 0 = symm.; 1 = right
assym. ASTV Percentage of time with abnormal short term (beat-tobeat) var
100.0% Mediana = 3 a Value below which 50% of the cases are
Example 1.3 The following Table 1.3 lists the measurements performed
in a random sample of 10 electrical resistances, of nominal value 100
(ohm), produced by a machine.
capabilities of those software packages is also provided, which can be
quite useful for practical purposes. STATISTICA, SPSS or MATLAB do not
provide specific tools for some of the statistical topics described in the
book. These range from such basic issu
Rayleigh Test for Randomness of Circular Data. Appl. Statist., 7:311-312.
Wood, ATA (1994), Simulation of the von Mises Fisher Distribution.
Comm. Statist. Simul., 23:157-164. Zar JH (1996), Biostatistical Analysis.
Prentice Hall, Inc.
Appendices A, B and
generated with a chi-square distribution. The resulting signal with
added noise is shown in the Signal+Noise variable. A threshold value
(variable THRESHOLD) can be specified in order to detect the signal
impulses. Changing the value of the threshold will
1.6 Statistical Significance and Other Significances
Statistics is surely a recognised and powerful data analysis tool. Because
of its recognised power and its pervasive influence in science and
human affairs people tend to look to statistics as some sort
Randles RH, Wolfe DA (1979), Introduction to the Theory of
Nonparametric Statistics. Wiley. Sachs L (1982), Applied Statistics.
Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. Sanders DH (1990), Statistics, A Fresh
Approach. McGraw-Hill Pub. Co. Sellers GR (1977), Element
E.26 Soil Pollution
The Soil Pollution.xls file contains thirty measurements of Pb-tetraethyl
concentrations in ppm (parts per million) collected at different points in
the soil of a petrol processing plant in Portugal. The variables are: x, y,
z: Space c