What are the core, Mantle, and crust layers in terrestrial Planets?
Core: The highest-density material, consisting primarily of metals such as nickel and
iron, resides in the central core.
Mantle: Rocky material of moder
List the four categories of materials in the solar nebula by
their condensation properties and abundance. Which
ingredients are present in terrestrial planets? In jovian
planets? In comets and asteroids? Explain why.
Hydrogen and helium gas
o Do not c
How does the Doppler technique work? Explain how it can tell us a planet's orbital
period, orbital distance, and orbital eccentricity.
Looks for the graivitational influence of the planet but focuses on
detecting Doppler shifts in a stars spectrum
1. How do the tides vary with the phase of the Moon? Why?
New moon and full moon= spring tides
First and third quarter= neap tides
Spring tides are bigger because the pull of the moon coincides
with the relatively minor pull of the suns tidal force
Earths location~ Cosmic Address
o In Solar System- sun and the objects that orbit it
3rd from sun
o In Milky Way Galaxy- great island of stars in space
Milkyway is disc shaped with arms that spiral clockwise
towards the center
We are located on the ou
How do the cloud layers help explain Jupiter's colors? Why are Saturn's colors
more subdued? Why are Uranus and Neptune blue?
Different types of clouds reflect light of different colors
Water reflect white
Ammonia reflect white
How do adaptive optics work? What atmospheric problem can adaptive optics help with?
Adaptive optics eliminate much of the blurring caused by the atmosphere
AO essentially makes the telescopes mirror do an opposite dance
canceling out the distortions
o The lens of the eye bends light, much like a glass lens, to create an
image on the focus
This lens is where refraction takes places
o Focal plane- the place where the image rays are bent appears in
o Light collecting area
o Gap Moons
Small moons located within the gaps in the rings themselves
Sometimes cause the nudging that causes bunching in the
orbits of ring particles
Gravity of a gap moon can keep the gap clear of smaller ring
particles and ripple the ring edges
o Hard to detect directly because of the scale of the distance
star would be a billion times brighter than the planet
the glare of the scattered light would overwhelm the
faint thing near a bright thing
o only a handfu
Water and land masses
Rocky crust, mantle, metal core, thin lithosphere
Has a Magnetic Field
Continental drift caused by seafloor spreading and mantle convection 1cm a
How does your eye focus light? How is a glass lens similar? What do we mean by the
focal plane of a lens?
The lens of the eye bends light much like a glass lens to create an image
o The retina does something.
o The refraction is done in the lense
How much greater is the light-collecting area of a 6-meter telescope than a 3-meter
telescope? How much better is the resolution?
The light collecting area is 4x larger
o Area= square of the diameter
How do reflecti
. Describe at least two "exceptions to the rules" that we
find in our solar system.
Uranus rotates on its side
Venus rotates backwards (clockwise)
Some small moons have unusual orbits
Earth has a large moon in the inner solar system
Tritan orbits Nep
In the context of planet formation, what are asteroids and
comets? Briefly explain why we find asteroids in the asteroid
belt and comets in the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud.
They are planetesimals that remained scattered
after the solar wind
o Can you use the speed of light? No
You need time and rate to find distance
You only know the rate
Measure the angle of the star on one side of the orbit, then
measure again on the other side forming a triangle and use
o Interior structure- Has interior layers that do not differ much in
composition, mostly hydrogen and helium, except in core
Similar to atmosphere
125k (-148c) temp
low density, pressure at 1 bar
Jupiter is so big
Still not big enough for nuclear fusion
Only 3% is the actual ice rich planet
Uranus and Neptune are smaller
Amount of gas captured is dependent upon distance from
Greater distance took longer to acc
If you lived on the moon how often would you see:
a. The sun rise and set: once every 15 days (rise to set), 30 days for rise to
b. The earth rise and set: earth is always in your sky or is never in your sky
c. A solar eclipse?: about the same am
How often should we expect impacts of various sizes on Earth? How serious
a threat do we face from these impacts?
Contrast the compositions and locate comets and asteroids, and explain in
your own words why they have turned out differently.
How does the Sun move with respect to the constellations over the year?
The night sky changes throughout the year because earth is rotating around the
sun causing different constellations to be visible. As we orbit, the sun appears to
move against the
How was the formation of jovian planets similar to that of the
terrestrial planets? How was it different?
Accretion formed icey planetesimals that then
through gravity drew in gases
o Must be 10 earth masses in core to have
enough gravity to attract h
how would the appearance of Neptune change if you moved it to the same
distance as Jupiter?
Describe the consequences of the Jovian planets magnetic fields
Suppose the material that formed Jupiter came together without any rotation so
Suppose we were to make the following discoveries. (These are not real
discoveries.) In light of your understanding of planetary geology, decide whether
the discovery should be considered reasonable or surprising. (In some cases,
both views can be defende
Describe the motion of the moon:
1) With respect to the sky over one night:
Rising in the east setting in the west
The location of the rising depends on its relationship to the celestial
o Moon can only move 5 degrees off of the ecliptic equa