Notes on Freezing and Boiling Points and Chemical Pressure
What has to be assumed for freezing point depression calculations?
1. nonfreezing solute
2. nonelectrolyte solute
3. dilute
4. constant pressure
5. constant Hfus
6. TF* = TF' = TF
7. ideal solutio
Notes on Fluidity
What are transport numbers used for?
Transport numbers indicate what fraction of current is carried by each solute ion in a
solution.
What is Newton's law of flow?
LIquids exist in sheets of fluid (lamina). During flow, linear momentum i
Notes on Chemical Potential
Electrochemical potential
The sum of the electric potential and the chemical potential. There is flow from high
electrochemical potential to low electrochemical potential for charged species.This is a
thermodynamic potential, n
Notes on Donnan
What side is the macro ion on? Does it matter?
M must always be on the (typically left) side of the membrane. It is never placed on the side
and it cannot go through the membrane to get to the side.
Donnan potential
The potential differenc
Notes on Debye-Huckle Theory
How do you calculate the van't hoff factor?
= (i -1)/(-1)
is the extent of reaction.
v = the number of molecules that the substance breaks into (ignore clustering effects)
What is debye length?
Debye length measures how far
Notes on Solvation and Constants
Dialectric constant (r)
The ratio of the amount of electrical energy stored in a material relative to the electrical energy
stored in a vacuum. Also known as relative permittivity. Shows how much a medium is affected
by ch
Notes on Ions
How is the dialectric constant related to temperature?
They are inversely proportional; as temperature increases, the dialectric constant
decreases.
kosmotropic ions
increase the viscosity of a solution
chaotropic ions
Decrease the viscosity
Notes on RMS
What are the four things that channels are gated by?
1. size/shape
2. charge/voltage
3. mechanosensory (streching)
4. ligands
How do you calculate the voltage spike in a membrane?
voltage spike () = f - i
What are the assumptions of the kinet
Notes on Fluxes and Charges
What is the transported quantity for electrical conduction?
charge
What is the transported quantity for diffusion?
matter
What is the transported quantity for viscosity?
linear momentum
Flux
The rate of change of a quantity per
Notes on Laws of Physical Chemistry
What is Kohlraush's law of independent migration?
It states that at infinite dilution, all ions are completely dissociated and act independently
of each other. This works for both strong and weak electrolytes. Equation