Integrating knowledge from different disciplines in conducting research and constructing theory.
A framework that serves as the worldview of researchers. Different paradigms assume different
interpretations of reality, human beh
Identity Negotiation Theory
A theory that emphasizes the process of communicating one's own desired identities while
reinforcing or resisting others' identities as the core of intercultural communication.
The process by which an individual portrays
A tendency to think that our own culture is superior to other cultures.
The characteristics of a population, especially as classified by race, ethnicity, age, sex, and
Using Anglo or white
Minority Identity: Stage 1: Unexamined Identity
Lack of exploration of identity. Individuals at this stage may simply lack interest in the identity
issue. Or minority group members may initially accept values and attitudes of the majority
Types of Approaches
An approach to intercultural communication that aims to understand and describe human
behaviour within specific cultural groups based on the assumptions that 1. human experience is
subjective, 2. human behaviour i
A study of intercultural communication, all call the social science approach, based on the
1. there is a describable, external reality, 2. human behaviours are predictable, and 3. culture is
a variable that can be m
Anxiety Uncertainty Management Theory
The view that the reduction of anxiety and uncertainty plays an important role in successful
intercultural communications, particularly when experiencing new cultures.
Face Negotiation Theory
The view that cultural gr
The way individuals make sense of their multiple images concerning the sense of self in
different social contexts.
A concept that refers to people taking on the identities of other races, genders,
Underlying assumptions about the nature of reality and human behaviour.
The study of how people use personal space.
The area, defined by physical space, within which people interact, according to Edward Hall's
Identification with a gender that does not match one's biological gender.
The identification with the cultural conventions of how we should act, look, and behave
according to our age.
Identifying with a