croftons ticket of leave?
meant that every inmate had to earn their right to leave. They had to work at being a normal
citizen before they were allowed to leave
who was Zebulon Brockway?
the first superintendent of the first reformatory in the
What are drug courts?
First established in Miami FL, in 1989
Has special/limited jurisdiction
Help handle drug cases
Help reduce drug use through treatment and court authority
Research shows these courts can be effective
What is a suspended s
What is the Panopticon?
the prison building in which the shape is a cylinder with a tower of guards in the center
what did William Penn believe was an effective way of punishment?
he believed that hard work and intense labor was more suitab
Notes on Incapacitation and Retribution
What are the three main correctional ideologies in correction
Prevention, punishment, and rehabilitation
Defiance theory. When does punishment increase? Decrease?
If punishment is seen as unjust, it will reinforce a
what are three functions of the early jails in Europe?
detain people before jail, and hold prisoners awaiting sanctions. hold slaves
what is blood feud?
a series of retaliatory acts where the offenders family and tribe would attack, (Hatfield
What is the difference between determinate and indeterminate sentencing?
Determinate: Fixed period of incarceration imposed at sentencing
Reduced need for parole board
Set by state legislature in state statues
What are the disadvantages of plea-bargaining?
Encourages waiving of right to trial
Public opinion: offenders get off easy
Danger that innocent person will plea guilty
What is the difference between concurrent and conse
Notes on Deterrence
What is deterrence?
prevention of crime by the threat of punishment
Three components of deterrence?
certainty(most important), severity, and swiftness
What is specific deterrence?
refers to the effect of punishment on the future behavi
Prison Bulk Notes
what is a prison hulk?
a vessel on a ship that holds convicts while they are being transported
what is banishment?
sending prisoners to jails that were in the middle of nowhere so they they would eventually die
due to no nourishment
Functions of Jails
Cooper vs. Pate?
1964: no longer seen as "slaves of the state" (religion)
Estelle v. Gamble
1976- medical care
What levels do jails generally operate ?
Secure facility designed to hold offenders, usually for one year or less