Lecture 7: Archaeological Excavation
Whats the difference between an antiquities collector and an archaeologist?
Archaeologists view the context of the objects as important, whereas Collectors view the objects
themselves as important.
o Ex., Cla
Review Sheet/Guidelines for Exam III-Brophy
This is a rough outline for Exam III. I will update it when we get closer because we will likely
not get to all of the material in this sheet.
What are the main changes that occurred from australopithecines to H
a. A 4th dynasty Egyptian King who constructed a pyramid at Giza that was slightly smaller
than the one constructed by Cheops. The great Sphynx was erected alongside it.
a. First 4th dynasty Egyptian king who constructed the first an
o Domesticated plants
o Adapting wild plants and animals for human use. They are raised for food, work, clothing, medicine, and
many other uses
o The activity or business of growing crops and raising livestoc
Part Two: Identification: 1.) define/identify the following people, places, and key terms. 2.) state the
significance of the term, phrase or person for our class. 1-2 sentances.
o A study in modern American culture in 1929. African America
Thunder Rides a Black Horse
Chapter 1: Time and the Mythic Present
Perhaps there may be a fewa very fewApache people wo could step into the Hollywood and
novelists stereotypes and find the fit a comfortable one, but I do not know them; they
Anthropology 2015 Fall 2017 Test #1
o The study of material remains of culture. It is patterned, learned behavior, dead people
and their culture
o The study of living people and their culture
o All of the mat
De moi 12
o 10,000 BC
o Origins of states
o First food production
Pleistocene and Holocene
Holocene (~10,000 BP to now)
Pleistocene (~1,6000,000 10,000 BP)
The Neanderthals (part of the Upper Paleolithic?)
o Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
closest related species
o Large brain, ca. 1500 cc (from 1245 to 1740 cc)
o Round cranium, massive brow ridges, large face, big nose
All notes for arch test 1
What is archeology?
A science, based on empirical observations.
NOT the study of dinosaurs (paleontology (study of extinct species?)
Use material culture
~Most primates are diurnal
~Nocturnal species tend to forage alone or in 2/3
Social Systems (4):
>Based on adult female and her offspring
>Common in prosimians (lemur and lorises) and orangutans
Recognizing of Fossil Genera:
~A genus is a group of species composed of members more closely related to each other than to
species from any other genus
~Species that are members of the same genus share the same broad adaptive zone
~Members of the same ge
Review Sheet/Guidelines for Exam II-Brophy
Why do we study non-human primates?
-Because they have similar characteristics to humans
-To learn more about ourselves
What features broadly define the Order Primate?
(1) Opposable thumbs
Alfred Russell Wallace:
~Naturalist studying animal and plant life in Amazon and southeast Asia
~Wallaces Sarawak Law; never really interpreted his data
Darwin and Wallace:
~In 1858 Darwin and Wallace presented at the Linnaean Society meetings
~Recordings are allowed
~Anthropology is the study of humankind in all times and places
~Logos- to reason or study
~4 main differences from other sciences:
1. ANTH usually studies the other cultures
a. Reduces ethnocen
Modes of Inheritance
~Pleiotropic effect (pleiotrophy)
-A single gene may have multiple effects (example: Marfan gene)
~Polygenic or continuous traits
-Governed by several alleles (example: skin color)
-Expressions may be much influenced by envi
Geologic Time Scale:
~Earliest evidence of life: 3.8 billion years ago
~286-65 million years ago: time of the dinosaurs
~65-present million years ago: time of the mammals
Rise of the Primates:
~Primate anatomical traits evolved as adaptations to environme
Fossils in a Geologic Context
~Objects or materials fashioned or altered by hominids
~Express facts of human culture
~About 2.6 million years ago was the first artifacts found
~Any mineralized trace of impression of an organism that ha
THE LIVING PRIMATES
~Despite the same basic adaptations, still a lot of diversitymorphological, ecological, and
Traditional Primate Classification:
Lemurs, Lorises, Tarsiers
August 23, 2017
Deals with the analysis of skeletal, decomposed or burned human remains resulting
from unexplained deaths
When a body cannot be visually identified
o Try to extract info about the person (his/her life) (leading to ide
Part 1: Modernity
- Language (verbal, sign, computer, etc.)
- Symbolism (cave paintings)
- Complex tools
- Aurignacian: blade based technology, bone and antler tools, hafted tools
Microliths: tiny chips put on spears to ma
How do we explain the diversity of life on earth?
Why are groups composed of similar looking species?
Categorize based on characteristics
Why is there a hierarchical pattern of similarity of species exist?
Why are the features of organisms so wel
1) What are the five Dominant Modes of Resistance?
1. Everyday refusal
2. Dramas of Protest
3. Acts of Terror
4. Social Movement
5. National Movement
2) What is the difference between langue and parole?
Langue - systematic aspect of language
Parole - in
Anthropology 1003 Final Review
History of Anthropology:
e.g. Evans- Pritchard
Same gender mati-work in Suriname
Gloria Wekkers work on mati work in Suriname: a same-sex relationship with
Profoundly different from US notions of a lesbian relationship, where we tend to
consider sexual a fixed
Carl von Linne (1707-1778)
-Better known as Carolus Linnaeus
-Linnaeus was a creationist and an advocate of the Principle of
Fixity of Species: god created all species, and species were
immutable and unchangeable after the creat
Study of humans and human kind.
All people and all times.
What we were in the past and who we are today and in the future?
Different types of sub categories
o The study of human societies
Ex. Mexican girl 15th bi
NOTES FOR ANTHROPOLOGY FINAL
Some new species are accounted because people just want to name new animals
Africa only earliest fossils found (hominid fossils)
2 big questions:
Lumpers are actual species others ca