Chapter 3 Notes
Pangenesis- first attempt to explain the transmission of hereditary traits from generation to
generation from Hippocrates.
First systematic studies of genetic crosses were carried out by Joseph Kolreuter from 1761 to
1766. He crossed diffe
Chapter 19 Notes
Recombination, Immunogenetics, and Transposition
o Homologous recombination- process where DNA segments that are similar or identical
to each other break and rejoin to form a new combination.
This enhances genetic diversity and also help
Chapter 2 Notes
Reproduction and Chromosome Transmission
o Reproduction is the biological process by which new cells or new organisms are
o Chromosomes are structures within living cells that contain the genetic material.
Genes are physically l
Chapter 3 Notes
Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA
o Molecular Genetics- study of DNA structure and function at the molecular level.
11.1 Identification of DNA as the Genetic Material
o Genetic material must meet four criteria to fulfill its role:
Chapter 5 Notes
5.2 Recessive Alleles Often Cause a Reduction in the Amount or Function of the Encoded
o Prevalent alleles in a natural population are wild-type alleles.
o Genetic Polymorphism- more than one wild-type.
o Mutant alleles- random mu
Chapter 4 Notes
Sex Determination and Sex Chromosomes
o Sex determination- Underlying mechanism by which an individual develops into a male
Sex Differences May Depend on the Presence of Sex Chromosomes
o In 1901 Clarence McClung who studied gra
Chapter 21 Notes
o Biotechnology- broadly defined as the application of technologies that involve the use of
living organisms or products from living organisms for the development of products that
o Genetically modified organ
Chapter 7 Notes
o Genetic Map- Diagram that describes the order of genes along a chromosome.
Overview of Linkage
o Each linear chromosome contains a very long segment of DNA and contains many
individual functional units called genes that influenc
Chapter 1 Notes
Human Genome Project is a prime example of increasing pace of genetic discoveries.
o Began in 1990 when the National Institutes of Health and Department of Energy joined
forces with international partners to decipher massive amount of info
Chapter 26 notes
o Complex traits- characteristics determined by several genes and are significantly
influenced by environmental factors.
o Quantitative traits- can be described numerically.
o Quantitative genetics- field of genetics
Chapter 6 Notes
6.1 Extranuclear Inheritance: Chloroplasts
o Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain own DNA.
o Inheritance of organellar genetic material is called extranuclear inheritance.
Chloroplasts Contain Circular Chromosomes with Many Genes
Chapter 25 Notes
o Population Genetics- concerned with changes in genetic variation within a group of
individuals over time.
Genes in Populations and the Hardy-Weinberg Equation
o Gene pool- all the alleles of every gene in a populatio
Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes
Gene regulation in prokaryotes allows the bacteria to control the level of gene
expression so that genes are expressed at higher or lower levels.
o Since eukaryotes are more complex they require a much greater level o
Chapter 23 Notes
Genomics II: Functional Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics
o Genomics involves the mapping of an entire genome and eventually the determination
of a species complete DNA sequence.
o Functional genomics- elucidate the roles of geneti
Chapter 18 Notes
Gene mutation and DNA Repair
o Mutation- refers to a heritable change in the genetic material.
o If a mutation occurs in reproductive cells then it can be passed from parent to offspring.
o Mutations provide the allelic variation that we
Chapter 24 Notes
Medical Genetics and Cancer
A Genetic Basis for a Human Disease May Be Suggested from a Variety of Observation
o In human diseases, there is both a genetic and environmental component.
o When a disease correlates with several of the obser