Every culture has music used to bring individuals into a collective whole
What we choose not necessarily what we need
Human beings: story-telling animals, humans energize each other
Gordon Allport: Harvard Bigshot: the nature of prejudice
The human mind m
Final is not cumulative
Both are multiple choice and fill in the blank
Environmental health: aspects of human health, quality of life, that are determined by
physical, social, chemical, biological, and psychosocial factors in the e
Adulthood: rites of passage and initiation ceremonies
o Signal that you are self sufficient
o Persists in religion and traditions: bar mitzvah, confirmations
o Adulthood is the end of growth
o The changes are downhill from there
may lose control over some aspect of sovereignty.
The neorealist perspective sticks with the idea
that states are unitary actors with interests (Keohane
1984; for a recent interesting updating of this
perspective see Koremenos, Lipson, and Snid
In Mexico, the FLA and WRC collaborated in
settling a strike and gaining recognition for the
workers union in the Korean-owned Kukdong
factory, which made Nike and Reebok sweatshirts
for the lucrative U.S. collegiate apparel market
Modes of Governance and Variation in Performance.
Pp. 339 in Labour Relations and Economic
Performance, ed. Renato Brunetta and Carlo
DellAringa. New York: New York University Press.
Seidman, Gay. 2003. Monitoring Multinationals:
Lessons from the Anti-apa
the existence of democracy. Others are international.
Here, scholars have emphasized the role of
U.S. hegemony, the fall of communism, and the
push to economic liberalization by IGOs like the
Organization for Economic Cooper
global economy is to create theory and carry out
insightful empirical studies that provide tools to
understand the constantly changing reality we seek
to apprehend and change.
I am grateful to Giovanni Arrighi, Fred Block, Frank
Dobbin, Mark Granove
the Internet. American Behavioral Scientist 44:
Gereffi, Gary, Ronie Garcia-Johnson, and Erika Sasser.
2001. The NGO-Industrial Complex. Foreign
Gereffi, Gary, and Raphael Kaplinsky, eds. 2001. The
Value of Value Chains: Spreading
and its uniqueness suggest the limits of current
economic international arrangements. Existing arrangements
tend to be piecemeal and focused on
particular firms or industrial sectors. They frequently
lack strong enforcement mechanisms or
hard law. What ge
they probably prefer no rules (i.e., negative integration).
States try to maintain sovereignty, and
the most powerful state, the United States is one
of the main obstacles to international agreements.
The first step in developing a sociology of markets
of the possibility of rent seeking either on
the part of governments or a subset of firms (see
Noll 1989 and Peltzman 1989 for reviews). Governments
will want to keep control over economic
actors and keep tax revenues high. The largest and
most powerful f
Treaty of European Union, the EP accrued broad
agenda-setting powers and, under some conditions,
veto authority in the legislative process.
Thus, after 1986, the Council of Ministers legislates
with the EP, while the Commission retains its
powers of legis
as a cause and consequence of this increase in
trade. There is a huge and expanding world market
for currencies, equities, government bonds,
and other financial instruments such as derivatives.
Fund managers move money across countries and
transnational interest groups, in the forms of
INGOs, can have influence over this emerging
polity. But he recognizes that this emergence is
fraught with difficulties.
Constructivism is an umbrella term for approaches
emphasizing that the a
rulers of premodern European states had time horizons
that were far too short to understand what
produced long-term economic growth. Most market
institutions were the outcome of political struggles
whereby one group of capitalists captured government
onto their local bases of power.
A TYPOLOGY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC
The sociology of markets offers good suggestions
as to the link between the creation of global
markets and the creation of international economic
agreements. As producers com
Much of the current discussion omits important
elements. First, the degree to which changes in international
trade drive agreements is not well specified.
Second, almost no attention is given to what
is or is not contained in agreements. Third, it is
the world systems literature is that the United
States is in decline economically (Wallerstein 1984;
Boswell and Chase-Dunn 2000; Arrighi 1994).
This implies that there will be a resurgence of conflict
in the world system and that U.S.-inspi
corporations through the extensive interaction of
firms, courts, and government. Finally, investor and
consumer protection was extended during the depression
of the 1930s. The process by which these
legal vehicles evolved was contentious. There were
Rules that guide trade across national boundaries
are termed positive integration when they specify
how exchange will be governed (Scharpf 1996).
An important insight provided by economic sociology
is that the problems facing actors in international
these agreements or at least worked to get
their governments to put into place forms of social
protection in the face of free trade. Social movement
NGOs focused on the environment, human
rights, and womens rights have all pushed gov190
positive feedback. Governments that participate
get increased economic growth as free trade works
for their society. This makes them more likely to
open more markets. It is also the case that some international
governmental organizations hav
Sectors. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hummels, David, Dana Rapaport, and Kei-Mu Yi. 1998.
Vertical Specialization and the Changing Nature of
World Trade. Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Economic Policy Review, June, 7999.
Humphrey, John, and Hubert S
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE SOCIOLOGY OF
The sociology of markets can be used to make
more sense of international economic agreements.
My basic view is that the sociology of markets conceives
of a market as an organizational field in
which a self-reprodu
these efforts fail, the national market may be absorbed
into the international market, with firms
adopting the new conception of control either by
employing the new methods for competition or
Firms that are not exporting and are not threat
orientation means that those actors will need rules
to govern their interactions. They will need rules
to govern property rights and competition and cooperation,
and need rules of exchange. These rules
can be hard or soft. They can be made with or
to know which goods and services are highly traded
across societies and which are not. Part of the
problem is that our theories begin with governments
and national markets and then extrapolate
to international markets without governments. In
eds. 2000. International Production Networks in
Asia. London: Routledge.
Boyer, Robert. 1989. The Regulation School: A Critical
Introduction. Trans. Craig Charney. New York: Columbia
Campbell, John L., J. Rogers Hollingsworth, and Leon
New Production Patterns in the World Economy, ed.
S. W. Arndt and H. Kierzkowski. Oxford: Oxford
Yeung, Henry Wai-chung. 2000. Economic Globalization,
Crisis, and the Emergence of Chinese Business
Communities in Southeast Asia. Internati