1. a) Even though Sodium is a metal and Chlorine is a gas, in Sodium Chloride they are
physically crystalized and also edible (even though Chlorine is poisonous and you cant eat
Sodium because its a metal). Sodium Chloride (table
Astronomy class I
Life in the Universe
What is the Universe?
How does the Earth fit in?
What is life?
How do human beings fit in?
If the sun is the size of a large grapefruit, where would we expect Neptune to be?
How far away is the closes
How do we know the initial amount of Ar40 when using Potassium radiometric dating?
Ar40 is very rare so basically 0
Which of the following effects which contributed to the initial heating the Earth also provided
energy for many Gyr after?
Astronomical Unit (distance from Earth to Sun)
Venus is twice as far away from the Sun as Mercury. How much light from the Sun does
it then receive?
The only stable surface liquid water in the Solar System
v c =(
GM 1 /2
M =3.678 x 10 kg
(G) G = 6.67 x 10
kg s 2
(A) r = 1.5 AU = 2.244 x 108 km = 2.244 x 1011 m
= 34386.17587 m2 s2
= 34.38617 km/s 2
12x = 2920
x = 243.333333
a. Depending on the a
To be an official planet:
Must have cleared its orbit
Alien of the day
From planet Kashyyyk
No axial tilt and circular orbit
No seasons because no tilt
How long is the cycle of the moons phases?
About a month
To when it star
Alien of the day: Ewoks
Adapted to live on the forest moon of Endor
Moon of gas giant orbiting a binary star
We cannot detect the moons around gas giants yet
It is likely that they exist
Reading: Ch. 2 in Kay
Homework 1 is posted und
The Hadean Earth
After particles condense, they accrete into larger particles an eventually become
The things sticking together are the embryos of planets, and they get bigger and bigger
Combine near the
Alien of the Day: Vogon
From planet Vogsphere
Slimy creatures were not allowed to evolve after emerging from the sea
Can creatures survive if they arent allowed to evolve?
No, because unless your environment is totally stable, you need to be able
An emergent property displays
novel properties relative to the fundamental entities from which it is made
The early start of life on Earth means that
It is possible for life to start
Evolution by natural selection was proposed by D
Is the force of gravity the same for all objects on Earth?
No, it depends on your mass (the acceleration is the same)
If you traveled around the Solar System and weighed yourself standing on the surface of each of
the below planets, where would yo
Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
At 25 years during 18 months while Cambridge was closed due to the Plague, Newton
developed mathematical calculus, founded optics, the science of light propagation,
initiated work on mechanics
If you did not have the effec
Life on Earth
Nucleosynthesis (big bang, stars, supernova) -> elements needed for life (C,H,O, N)
1. Hypothesize (complex organic molecules required for life were easily produced on the early
2. Predict (simple mole
1. a. Poll results:
Believe aliens exist: 3/6
Aliens have visited us: 1/6
Base beliefs on:
Previous astronomy class
Size, vastness of universe
b. Yes, I think the scientific study of astrobiology has had an impact
What is the speed of light?
3 x 10^5 km/s
If both the Sun and Venus imploded at the same time, which would we know had been destroyed
Venus, because it is closer, and the lack of light (since all light travels at the same sp
Bergmanns rule states that larger animals of a population are found in colder climates. This is
because larger animals have
A higher volume to surface ratio
A highly evolved organism is
Not always highly complex
Not always perfectly optimized for
1) a. Two different pieces of evidence of H20 on Mars include the visible ice cap on the North
Pole of Mars and rovers have brought back samples hydrated salts from the surface.
b. The discovery of water on Mars is so important be
Q1) a. Nus would be twice as hot as the Sun because wavelength and temperature are inversely
related, so if Nuss peak wavelength was half that of the Suns, then it would be twice the
b. There would be fewer gas giants becau
What piece of evidence regarding the Moons origin is the fission theory unable to explain?
Paucity of volatiles on the Moon
What does carbon-14 decay into?
None of the above (which were Argon-40, Nitrogen-14, Carbon-12)
HW2 grades o
a. Astrometry observes at a planets gravitational pull on its star. Unlike radial velocity, which
measures the Doppler shift of the starlight, astrometry measures the stars position relative to
distant background stars. As a
Alien of the day: Superman
From an Earth-like glowing green planet- Krypton
1.5 Earth mass planet around a red Sun
Maybe there is only one way for intelligent life to evolve- under the conditions of Earth
or Earth-like places.
1. If the moon and Earth were closer together, the moon would cast a larger shadow, so during
eclipses, more places would see the full eclipse. Eclipses might even happen more often because
with a larger shadow, it might increase the likelihood of the moo
Astronomy 2002 Problem Set 3 Solutions
1. Galaxy Classification (10 points)
(a) Find the angular diameter (in arcseconds) at distances of 10, 100 and 1000Mpc
for typical elliptical, spiral and irregular galaxies with linear diameters of 50, 30
and 10kpc r
Astronomy 2002 Introduction to Astrophysics II
Problem Set 1 Solutions
1. Scales in our Galaxy
(a) The best estimate of the distance to the Galactic center from the Sun is 8.3kpc.
The Sun moves in a near-circular orbit around the Galaxy and the best estim
Astronomy 2002 Introduction to Astrophysics II
Problem Set 2
Due date: Thursday February 19th, in class
General Notes: LATE PROBLEM SETS WILL BE PENALIZED. Make sure that
your NAME is on each page that you turn in and that they are stapled together. Pleas
Astronomy 2002 Problem Set 4 Solutions
1. Hubble Constant and the Age of the Universe (12 points)
Hubble first derived a value of H0 =500 (km/s)/Mpc from his original diagram.
(a) Starting from the equation:
R 2 =
show that the age of the Univers
WHY HAVE WE ONLY FOUND PLANETS THAT ARE
REALLY BIG OR REALLY CLOSE TO THEIR STARS?
Exoplanets: planets that orbit a star outside of our
Planets are very small and very dark compared to stars
EXTRA CREDIT ESSAY: ASTRONOMY LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE
The American Museum of Natural History is one of the largest and most
renowned museums in the world. With exhibits ranging from meteorites to fossils to
dinosaurs and butterflies
ASTRONOMY HOMEWORK SET 4
Tuesday, November 12th, 2013
In 1800, the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was about 290 ppm and
around 1850 1870 the mean global temperature was about 13.6C. In 1824, Fourier
calculated that the Ear
Atmospheres: Formed by outgassing from interiors and impacts of icy debris from outer solar system. Moon may never have had atm, Mercury lost it. Original atms: CO, NH 3, CH4.
Solar UV broke these apart, H escaped, leaving CO 2 and N2. On Earth, CO2 remov