Gravimetric Methods of
Analysis
Chapter 12
Gravimetric
Encompasses all technique in which the signal is a mass
or change in mass
Measuring mass is the most fundamental of all analytical
measurements
Gravimetric is the oldest analytical technique
Using
Chapter 7:
Let the Titrations Begin
Titrimetry
Definitions:
Titrimetry refers to that group of analytical techniques which takes
advantage of titers or concentrations of solutions.
The word "titer" is also used to denote "equivalence" or that amount of a
CHAPTER 6
ENTROPY
Sub-chapter covered
6.5 Isentropic Efficiencies of Steady Flow Devices
Isentropic efficiencies
- Parameter that expresses quantitatively how efficiently an
actual device approximate an idealized one.
- Isentropic or adiabatic efficiency
CHAPTER 6
ENTROPY
Sub-chapter covered
6.6 Entropy Balances
Entropy Balances
1. Property entropy is a measure of molecular disorder of randomness
of a system
2. Entropy can be created but it cannot be destroyed (2nd Law of Thermod
3. Entropy balance entrop
CHAPTER 6
ENTROPY
- Clausius discovered a new thermodynamics property and name this
property entropy
- It is designated S and is defined as
Q
dS
T int rev
- Entropy is a extensive properties of a system and sometimes is
referred to as total entropy (k
SPECIAL PROBABABILITY
DISTRIBUTION
Discrete Probability Distribution
The Poisson Distribution
If we are interested in the number of occurrences
that take place in an interval (time/volume)
Then
we use
the Poisson Distribution
Situations to be modeled by P
MATHEMATICS DEPARTMENT
CHAPTER 12
SPECIAL PROBABILITY
DISTRIBUTION
SPECIAL PROBABILITY
DISTRIBUTION
Discrete Uniform Distribution
Discrete Uniform Distribution
A discrete random variable x is said to have a uniform
distribution, if its probability functio
1.0
INTRODUCTION
Water pollution has become one of the biggest issue in this world since water is an
important sources in our daily life. However, due to the rapid industrialization in this world,
heavy metals such as zinc, copper, and chromium are often
STEPS IN PROCESS/
PRODUCT DESIGN
!
!
!
!
Design problems - assume they are open ended with many solutions that
are attractive and near optimal.
Steps to design are not the same generally between different designers.
Product and process development <- expe
Heat Exchanger
Design
Source:Step for design of heat exchanger by Dr Reyad Shawabkeh, Dep. Of
Chem Eng, King Fahd University of Petroleum &Minerals
1. Diameter of tube and BWG, also length of
tube, L.
2. Fouling
Heat Exchangers
HE without Phase Changes
Example 1
Freon 12 at a flow rate of 10560 kg/hr, needs to be heated from 240 K
to 300 K. Ethylene glycol is available at 350 K. A typical shell and tube
heat exchanger will be used. The plant manager recommends th
Introduction to Aspen Plus
Dr Leo Choe Peng
Tel (604) 5996425
Email: [email protected]
Reactors
Prepared by OBS
3
Reactor Overview
Prepared by OBS
4
Different Models of Reactor Block
1.
RStoic: a stoichiometry-based reactor with
specified extents of reac
DESIGNING STEPS OF DISTILLATION
COLUMN
Calcula&on of Minimum number of stages.Nmin
Calcula&on of Minimum Reux Ra&o Rm.
Calcula&on of Actual Reux Ra&o.
Calcula&on of theore&cal number of stages.
Calcula&on of actua
Matbal-001
Revised: Oct 16, 2012
Cyclohexane Production with Aspen Plus V8.0
1. Lesson Objectives
Construct an Aspen Plus flowsheet simulation of the production of cyclohexane via benzene
hydrogenation
Become familiar with user interface and tools associa
Distillation
Basic
McCabe-Thiele diagram
Prepared by OBS
2
Method
1.
2.
All stages are at steady state and the
stage products are at equilibrium.
The flow rates of all liquids leaving a
stage are identical, as are the flow rates
of all vapors.
Rule of thu
Introduction to Aspen Plus
Dr Leo Choe Peng
Tel (604) 5996425
Email: [email protected]
Basic of Aspen Plus
Aspen Plus
Aspen Plus is a computer-aided software
for process simulation
Industrial complicated problems are often
not solved by hand to avoid hu
Aspen Properties
Toolkit Manual
Version Number: 2006
October 2006
Copyright (c) 2006 by Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Aspen Properties, aspenONE, the aspen leaf logo and Plantelligence and Enterprise Optimization are trademarks or
registered
Aspen Plus
Getting Started
Customizing Unit
Operation Models
Version Number: 2006
October 2006
Copyright (c) 2006 by Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Aspen Plus, aspenONE, the aspen leaf logo and Plantelligence and Enterprise Optimization are t
Introduction to Aspen Plus
Dr Leo Choe Peng
Tel (604) 5996425
Email: [email protected]
Property Estimation
Property Estimation
Many methods for estimating pure
component properties, e.g.
Boiling point critical temperature
acentric factor boiling point
Wong Hui Yin (117918)
Assignment II : Cyclohexane Production with Aspen Plus V8.0
Figure 1 : Simulation of Cyclohexane Production using Aspen Plus
The process flow diagram is created using Aspen Plus. The condition in the feed preheater, reactor,
flash ta
Aspen Tutorial #6: Aspen Distillation
Outline:
Problem Description
Aspen Distillation Options
DSTWU Distillation
RadFrac Distillation
Problem Description:
A mixture containing 50.0 wt% acetone and 50.0 wt% water is to be separated into two
streams one enr