Chapter 1
Physics
&
Measurement
Chapter Outline
Standard of length, mass and
time
Dimensional analysis
Conversion of unit
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this chapter,
students should be able
to resolve physical quantity and
International systems of meas
2ND PRINCIPLE OF THERMODYNAMICS:
Supplementary Notes.
CARNOT CYCLE
KKKL1134
Iskandar Yahya
[email protected]
JKEES, FKAB, UKM.
Carnot Cycle
The efficiency of an irreversible heat engine is always less than the
efficiency of a reversible one operating b
Review
Heat is a form of energy the microscopic motion of particles
Thermodynamic processes
Properties of pure substances
- Ideal gases
- Water phases
The First Principle of Thermodynamics
Closed and open thermodynamic systems
Closed system
There is no tr
Review
Steady heat conduction
Fourier law
Newton law
Electricity analogy
Temperature distribution in walls, cylinders, fins
Heat conduction
Transient heat conduction
Not steady: temperature and heat flow vary in space and time
T T ( x, t )
Fourier law: st
Review
Thermodynamic cycles of interest
Otto for car engines
Diesel for car engines
Brayton for gas turbines
Rankine for steam power plants
Inverse Rankine for refrigeration plants
Importance of enthalpy
Heat conduction
First and second principle
- Heat a
Review
Energy exchanges in a process
First principle: conservation of energy
Properties of ideal gases: specific heats
The adiabatic transformation
The Second Principle of Thermodynamics
Reversibility of processes
Many processes do not violate the First L
Physics for Engineering
KKKL1134
Semester I, Academic Session 2013-2014
Dr Edgar Scavino
Dr Iskandar Yahya
JKEES
[email protected]
Assignments and Projects
3 Tutorials, 1 or 2 quizzes: short numerical exercises.
1 Assignement
1 PBL: Large problem, by gr
Review
Transient heat conduction
Fourier law
Newton law
Diffusion equation
Heat convection
Heat flow is determined by a carrying fluid flow
Natural convection: fluid is free to move
(No global mass flow)
Forced convection: fluid is pumped
(wind is conside
Review
The second principle of thermodynamics
Reversibility in heat engines
Carnot machine
Efficiency of a heat engine
Entropy
Main Thermal Cycles
Ideal cycles
- every process is a sequence of states
- each process is a simple one: isochoric, isobaric or