Pumps normally require minimal attention during operation. Valves however, must
be located for easy access; this is particularly true for paired or spared pumps.
Where manual valves cannot be operated from grade, chain operators shall be
used. If chain op
Brief Description of the Pulp
and Paper Making Process
Pulp and paper are manufactured from raw materials containing cellulose fibers,
generally wood, recycled paper, and agricultural residues. In developing countries,
Market and Technology Foresights for
the Oleochemical Industry,
and Market Outlook for the Southeast
Senior Industry Analyst
June 1, 2010
Value Chain of the Oleochemical Industry
Introduction to the
15 - 1
1. describe and apply the finance function in an
organisation, the basic framework of financial
reporting and their importance and contribution.
2. describe and ap
ALDEHYDE AND KETONE
a carbonyl group
Carbon is sp2 hybridized.
C=O bond is shorter, stronger, and more polar
than C=C bond in alkenes.
React with nucleophiles
As the number of R groups around the
carbonyl carbon increases, the reactivity of
ALCOHOL, ETHER & EPOXIDES
Alcohol, ether and epoxides are three functional
groups that contain carbon-oxygen bonds.
Alcohols contain hyroxy (OH) group and classified as
primary, secondary, or tertiary.
Ethers have two alkyl group
Hydrocarbon with carbon-carbon
Consist of one and one bond
Each carbon is sp2 hybridized
Cycloalkenes contain a double bond
in a ring
Parent is longest chain containing the
Nucleophilic Substitution and
Classes of Halides
Alkyl: Halogen, X, is directly bonded to sp3
Vinyl: X is bonded to sp2 carbon of alkene.
Aryl: X is bonded to sp2 carbon on benzene
H C C Br
Structure and Stereochemistry
All C-C single bonds
Saturated with hydrogens
Alkane homologs: CH3(CH2)nCH3
Same ratio for branched alkanes
H H H H
H C C C C H
H C H
45. Provide the reagents necessary to complete the following transformation,
40. Provide the reagents necessary to convert 3-methyr-2-butanor
47' Name the
1. What two atomic orbitals or hybrid atomic orbitals overlap to form the C-H bond in ethylene:
2. What two atomic orbitals or hybrid atomic orbitals overlap to form the
o bond in ethylene?
3.What two atom
sem 2, 2A15-201,6
12' Propose a detailed, step-by-step mechanism forthe reaction pathway
all likelv oroducts of the following reaction and circle the product you
expect to predominate
33. Draw the major orgafiic product generated in the reaction below.
34. Draw the major or8anic product generated in the reaction below.
35. Draw the major organic product generated in the
sem 2, 2015-2A1,(
57. How would one used a Grignard-based synthesis to accomolish the followins transiormars:
methyl isobutyrate [cfw_CH:ZCHCO2CH3] to 3-ethyl-2-methylpentan-3-ol
22- Provide the structure
sem 2, 2AL5-2O1.(
ofthe major organic product of the reaction below.
23. Provide the structure of the major organic product of the reaction below.
69. Provide the structure of the major organic oroduct in the reaction beiov.
71. What series of syn
AN ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS IN THE LEATHER
INDUSTRY AND PROPOSED REMEDIES: A CASE STUDY OF PAKISTAN
Dr. Javed Ahmad Chattha and M. Mobeen Shaukat
GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
Topi, Dist. Swabi NWFP,