Chapter 6 Theodolites
The main function of theodolite is to measure angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. It
is deemed as the scientifically most precise and versatile surveying instrument used for angle
measurements.
The digital theodolite nowada

Chapter 5 Traverse
Horizontal Control Surveys
One of the first steps in construction project is to establish a network of both vertical and
horizontal control points on or near the ground in the vicinity of the project. The relative
positions of all the p

Chapter 3 Horizontal Distance Measurement
(Taping and offset surveying)
The method of tape surveying is often referred to as chain surveying, deriving its name from the
fact that the principal item of equipment traditionally used was a measuring chain. No

Chapter 4 Angle and Directions
One of the basic purposes of surveying is to determine the relative positions of points on or
near the earths surface. Assigning coordinates to a given point is a useful and common way
to indicate its position. Angles are us

Tutorial (Traversing)
1. Calculate the angular error of closure, and balance the traverse angles. Angles shown
are unadjusted.
Figure 1
Answer:
2. Calculate Adjusted bearings from field angles:
Figure 2
Answer:
3. Figure 3 shows a closed-loop traverse wit

Chapter 1
Introduction of Basic Surveying
What is Surveying?
Surveying has to do with the determination of the relative spatial location of
points on or near the surface of the earth. It is the art of measuring horizontal
and vertical distances between ob

Tutorial (Height of Collimation Method, Rise and Fall Method)
1. Readings taken in order during a leveling work are given below. Tabulate them suitably and find the
reduced levels of all the points if the RL of the first point A is assumed to be 100.000.

Tutorial (Angle and Directions)
1. Determine the unknown azimuths for the traverse courses shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1
(AzimNBC = 1345, AzimNCD = 3700, AzimNDE = 7930)
2. Determine the unknown azimuths for the traverse courses shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2

Tutorial: Chaining Exercises
1.) The length of a line measured with a 30m long tape was 368.64m. The tape was standardized at a
temperature of 20C. If the temperature during measurement was 42C, find the correct length of
the line. The coefficient of ther