Calculus is the mathematics of change, and the primary tool for studying change
is a procedure called differentiation.
Rates of Change and slope
y = mx + c
y
(0, c)
x
x
y
m
x
=
y 2 y1
x 2 x1
# Rate of change is measured by slope
f(x) = y
f x h
y f x h f x

The chi-square distribution has only one parameter, called the degrees of freedom. The shape of
a chi-square distribution curve is skewed to the right for small df and becomes symmetric for
large df. The entire chi-square distribution curve lies to the ri

The arithmetic mean is the sum of all the observations divided by the number of observations. It
is written in statistical term as
x
1 n
xi
n i 1
Example: Final exam marks of biostatistics of 4 students are 75, 60, 67 and 80.
i
1
2
3
4
tota
l
xi
75
60
67

The objective of estimation is to determine the approximate value of a population parameter on
the basis of a sample statistic.
Point Estimator
A point estimator estimates the value of an unknown parameter using a single value or point.
Interval Estimator

Raw Data
Data recorded in the sequence in which they are collected and before they are processed or
ranked are also called raw data.
Example 1
INTI UC conducted a survey of last years Faculty of Business graduates to determine the
general areas in which t

The following requirements apply to a probability density function
a x b
f (x)
whose range is
.
1.
for all x between a and b
f ( x ) 0
2. The total area under the curve between a and b is 1.0
The normal distribution is the most important of all probabilit