Nicole Tan Kit Yi (27891585)
1. Diameter of field of view at magnification of x100 using the x10 objective lens is
2. Diameter of field view at magnification of x400 using the x40 objective lens is
3. Ratio of magnification between
Epigenetic and environmental factors are involved in gene regulation.
Epigenetic modifications, such as methylation of DNA bases, can cause heritable changes in gene
expression without actually changing the nucleotide sequence of a gene.
125 m/s = 280 miles/hour
Central nervous system (CNS) - brain + nerve cords.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) - neurons transmitting messages to and from CNS.
Nerve - composed of axons.
Cell body - area containing organelles and nucleus of a
Practical 1 - Control of Gene expression in Bacterial Cells
Table 1. Optical density ( = 430nm) over time of E. coli with (i) -galactosidase-inducer IPTG
and (ii) with H2O.
Practical 2 - Analysis of DNA by Gel Electrophoresis and Restriction Endonucleases
f(x) = 7.5x + 5
R = 0.99
Xylene cyanol FF
Linear (Xylene cyanol FF)
Linear (Bromophenol blue)
f(x) = 3.25x + 5
Ingestion - transfer food from external into body.
Digestion - conversion of food into smaller pieces mechanically and chemically.
Absorption - nutrients from food transferred from digestive tract to body.
Elimination - disposing undigest
Viral infections can be sensed by immune molecules and engulfed by phagocytes when outside
of the cell. NOD-like receptors and RNAi can sense the presence of intracellular infections. RNAi
slows down viral replication and the NOD-like recept
DNA polymerases - Proofreading and repair
- remove and replace incorrectly base paired nucleotides.
- cut out the incorrect nucleotide and replace it with appropriate nucleotide according to basepairing rules.
* corrects er
Transition - substitutes either a purine for a purine (A for G, or G for A) or a pyrimidine for a
pyrimidine (C for T, or T for C).
Transversion - a substitution between a pyrimidine and a purine (e.g: A for C).
1. Base substitutio
Muscle contraction - The contraction process uses ATP obtained from catabolism of energy sources such
as glucose, glycogen and creatine phosphate. Muscle contraction is stimulated by action potentials from
motor neurons, which are propagated into
Practical 4 - Amylase Activity in Germinating Barley
Metabolism is the biochemical processes occurring within living organisms that are necessary for
the maintenance of life which is usually categorized into two, catabolism and anabolism.