a nationpol itically of no account, but ful l of daring and
eager for gain. Thus i t happened that th e Greeks acqui red
th e elements of culture from Babylon and Egypt without
paying th e forfeit of independence. Th e benefits of this
ordinance are obvio
7 a. 1
, 1901 .
AU THORS PREFACE.
MY design in the present undertaking i s to compose a
comprehensive picture of th e department of knowledge in
which, during several decades past, I have been at pains
to increase th e material and to sifi t
natural fetishes. Savage man, unacquainted as h e was
with th e finer distinctions of scient i fic thought, was led to
believe inthese beings by a triple set of inferences. Th e
first was drawn from real or apparent observat ions of th e
outer world ; th
would figure th e god of heaven and his clouds as
a shepherd with hi s flock. And this tendency was
notably strengthened by th e auspicious ci rcumstances of
external l i fe,
which awoke th e desi re for cleamess, di s
, and a logical seq
that h e frequently intervened in th e pol itics of hi s bi rth
place, and h e is even said to have induced th e rul ing
Melancomas, to resign his usurped authori ty. But
th e date of th e completion of his work, onaccount of i ts
or i f th e dead manwere always changed beyond
recogni tion, th e inference s drawn fromth e cessation of l ife
ght have taken a different form. Frequently, however,
no outward changes disturb th e features of th e dead.
Death comes as a sudd
OLD IONIAN NATURE-PHILOSOPHERS.
CHAPTER I I.
ORPHIC SYSTEMS OF COSMOGONY.
xi i CON TEN TS .
CHAPTER I I I
PYTHAGORAS AND HIS DISCIPLES.
P E PAG E
A39 3 no
Hellenic portion of Southern Italy, th e second mi ght
wel l be given to th e sumof these settlements outside.
Th e mere number and diversity of th e colonies practical ly
ensured th e prospect that any seeds of civi l i zation would
happen onsuitable soi
str i fe. A battle of classes broke out. I t spread to th e
peasants, where persistent ill-usage and by no means
infrequent serfdomh ad sown th e seeds of revolt, and out
of th e rents and ruins of society there was hatched a brood
of usurpers, who part l
found himsel f al l at once no match for the foe h e h ad
frequently routed ; he felt a paralysis creep through his
l imbs, or a mist obstruct his consciousness, and in none
of these instances could h e blame any visible being,
He sei zed onany outward c
THE DISCIPLES OF PARMENIDES.
PAG E PAG E
x 1 84 3 194
2 1g r 4 199
x 208 3 2 19
2 2 1 3 4 222
E M P E D O C L E S.
r 227 5 24x
2 229 6
3 234 7 246
4 236 8 25 2
CHAPTER VI .
r 25 5 3 262
2 25 8 4
that when i t h as left th e body i t must perish as well.
On th e contrary, th e picture of th e beloved dead i s an
unfading possess ion h i s soul, in other words
, hovers round
us. And h owso primi tive man asked hims elf should i t
be otherwise ? Th
rel igious ties and frequent ly strengthened by later arrivals
was suffi ciently int imate to preserve in al l its parts th e
reciprocal benefits which proved so eminently fruitful.
Greece found in h er colon ies the great playground of h er
worship, and instances indeed could be found where that
las t l imit was transgressed. Take
, for example, th e love
story of Ares and Aphrod ite ; i t sti rred th e Ph a acians
to ribald mi rth, and i t evinces a worldliness in religious
four horses and two favouri te hounds, twelve Troj an youths
were first slaughtered and then burnt with the body
of h is dead friend. This complete consumpt ion of th e
offering by fire i s proved by more recent ritual evidence
to have been th e ceremony
poet as giving bi rth to high mountains and to th e starry
heaven that it may wholly encompass h er
, or when Earth
as th e bride of Heaven i s represented as th e mother of
deep-eddying Ocean, and Ocean again with Tethys as
engendering th e rivers, we ar
they grow, and they die together with th e abodes they
haunt . Other nymphs are exempt from that fate. They
dwell in water-brooks
, meadows, and groves, but they are
numbered with th e Immortals, and they are not missing
from th e great counci l of th e g
of culture. Each could develop a separate type of that
strongly marked individualism, which was ultimately to
prove so favourable to th e rich and many-sided civi l ization
so fatal to th e pol it ical concentration of h er
powers. Th e country
built for th e Sami ans in 705 E C. Naval engagements
were fought as early as 664 B.C.,
so that th e sea acqui red
th e utmost signi ficance in th e civil ization of Hellas for
th e commerce of peace and war. At th e same time, th e
progress of industry w
security, in th e stress of life. Olympus became a mi rror
of heroic experience, and its gorgeous and frequently
tumultuous features were faithfully reproduced. Gods and
menapproached each other with a fami l iari ty never since
repeated. Menwore no l itt
(5 ) Plato and the
(6) Aristotle and h is Successors
(7) Th e
(8) Th e Garden of Epicurus
In order not
unduly to increase th e compass of th e work, th e evidence
sharply defined, thei r independent activi ty stimulated, thei r
sel f-rel iance encouraged. In civic and party business a
manwould play his own part, advising and blaming as
counsellor orcritic, and boldly giving vent among his fellows
to h is sent iment
1 41 2 4
3 422 6
CHAPTER VI .
PROTAGORAS OF ABDERA.
gg 44 1 6
5 4 448 8
CON TEN TS . X V
CHAPTER VI I.
GORGIAS OF LEONTINI .
1 476 3 487
2 480 4 490
CHAPTER VI I I.
THE ADVANCE OF HISTORICAL SCIENCE.
1 49 7
be confused at times wi th a natural fetish through thei r
s imilarity in name or qualities, and would at last be
merged with it in a single being. I t is wholly i llegitimate
to infer fromoccurrences of this more or less isolated
character that any of th
than th e Greeks, and the Manes
of ancient Rome were
th e pitaras of th e Hindoos. Th e extinction of a fami ly at
Athens was regarded as omi nous
, inasmuch as i ts ancestors
would be deprived of th e honours that were due to them.
Th e whole population
custom of remote antiquity, and one which i s widely
spread in our own times. Th e Scythians, when they
buried thei r king, used to strangle one of hi s concubines
and five of his slavesthe cook, the cup-bearer, th e
Chamberlain, th e groom, and th e door
ancestral tombs, and from th e seats of worship appertain
ing to them in th e mother-count ry. But of greater
importance than al l was the joy in l i fe and th e world, so
repellent to melancholy and gloom
, which pervades th e
Home ric poems. I t shrank
and i ron,
for example, were not wood and i ron, but water
, there was not th e remotest reason wh y th e suspicion
of th e evidence of sense should make a pause at that point.
wh o was born in 6 10 B.C., fol lowed
the second of the
ima gination of Ionian poets, which made l ight of th e
cont radictions and diversities of legend, differed as widely
fromth e home-keeping, methodical wisdom of th e Boeotian
peasant as th e bri lliant z
ame of thei r noble audience
fromth e glo
must actually forma half of a complete sphere. Th e dome
of heaven stretched above our heads was perfected by a
complementary dome beneath our feet. Earth was deprived
of th e basis stretching to unfathomed depths on which sh e
should have beensupported,