Validity and Reliability
Validity:
An instrument is valid if it measures what it is
supposed to measure.
Validity tests show how well an instrument that
is developed measures the particular concept it is
intended to measure.
Valid RealityYes RealityNo
T
Dawood Lawrencepur Limited
, February 27, 2015
The General Manager
Karachi Stock Exchange Limited
Stock Exchange Building
Stock Exchange Road
Karachi 74000
The Secretary
Lahore Stock Exchange Limited
Stock Exchange Building
19, KhayabaneAiwan-e-lqbal
La
Supplemental Homework
Multi-asset Portfolio Optimization
Scenario Manager
Tools->Scenarios
Summary
Scenario Summary
Homework Instructions
Download the data file (index data.xls)
from the course website.
Compute the historic monthly returns
for each index
Test Statistics:
(oi ei ) 2
2
ei
i 1
k
cov( x, y )
r
sx s y
COV ( X , Y )
x y
( x )( y )
COV ( X , Y )
i
x
i
N
x
k
n
j 1 i 1
ij
k
y
( x x)( y y)
cov( x, y)
i
i
n 1
k
n
x n j x x xij x j
2
j 1
2
j 1 i 1
2
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
www.emeraldinsight.com/0263-5577.htm
Empirical study of public sector
employee loyalty and satisfaction
Public sector
employee loyalty
Ali Turkyilmaz
Department of Industrial Engineer
The Annals of The "tefan cel Mare" University of Suceava. Fascicle of The Faculty of Economics and Public Administration
Vol. 9, No. 2(10), 2009
DETERMINANTS OF KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIS) OF PRIVATE
SECTOR BANKS IN SRILANKA: AN APPLICATION OF EXPLO
Quantitative techniques
Quantitative techniques may be defined as those
techniques which provide the decision makes a
systematic and powerful means of analysis, based
on quantitative data, for achieving predetermined
goals.
Frederick W. Taylor (1911), Se
Hypothesis
A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for certain
behaviors, phenomena or events that have
occurred or will occur.
Characteristics of the Hypothesis
Consistent with previous research
Reasonable explanation
Clear and concise
Testable
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
www.emeraldinsight.com/1462-6004.htm
Motivations of migrant
entrepreneurship in Greece:
a factor analysis approach
Panagiotis G. Liargovas
Motivations of
entrepreneurship
627
Departme
Factor Analysis:
Factor analysis is a statistical method of data reduction. It
is used to study the dimensionality of a set of variables.
It reduces a large number of overlapping variables to a
smaller set of factors that reflect construct(s) or differe