Aegyptens, p. 567.
134 SYRIA AND PALESTINE
This fulfils the condition of fallingafter the reign of
Kamessu II. (1324-1258),but it also falls after the
reign of Merenptah (1258-1238).
In the year 1896 Petrie discovered at Thebes an
inscriptionin which occu
and sought to reform the administration of Egypt.
For the provinceshe was able to do nothing,as home
affairs were too pressing. With Sapalulu,king of
the Hittites,he was content to make a treaty dmeinteinr-g
the boundary between the two empires. Of
had taken their place, the Assyrians ction-ued
to call Syria" the land of the Hittites."
The regionseast of the Jordan were seized by the
Aramaean Bedawin ; and as these graduallyamamateldgawith
the older population and adopted its
language and customs, t
urgency of the situation and the sincerityof Abdkhiba's
appeal are strikinglyevinced by the pscorsit-pt
that he adds to one of his letters :
" To the
scribe of my lord,the king,Abd-khiba thy servant :
read these words plainlybefore my lord,the king :
having been given to Yarimuta for our sustenance. Further,
let my lord, the king, hear the words of his faithful servant,
and send grain in ships and preserve the life of his servant,
and his city. And may he give 400 men and 30 pairsof (?)
doubtless because in the unsettled state of the ctoruynhe
was no longer able to forward them to Egypt.
Abd-Ashirta, the Amorite, and his son Aziru, who
already under Amenhotep III. had made trouble
and had had to be suppressed,saw in the prevailing
Khabiri with 'Ibri, " Hebrew." In the
Amarna letters ' (y)is constantly represented by the
1 Miiller,Asien unci Europa, p. 234 f.
J Winckler, Geschichte Israels, i.,p. 13G.
3 Asien unci Europa, pp. 222, 234.
114: SYRIA AND PALESTINE
Babylonian kh. Khabiri
" All my cities,which the king gave into my hand,
have fallen into the hands of the Khabiri."
The perilwas equally great in Palestine. Abdkhiba,
king of Jerusalem, wrote to the Pharaoh :
" The land of the king is going to ruin. If thou
listen not to me, a
Khatesera, bears a name that has the same ending as
Gilu-khipaand Tadu-khipa,names of princessesof Mitanni
; andTare-Tishubu, the ambassador of Khatesera,
has a name compounded with that of the Mitannian god
Tishub. From these facts it has been inferred t
height of its power, i.e.,Asia Minor and Srriaas
far south as Hamath, a number of remarkable ghileyprho-ic
inscriptionshave been found. The cteharrsacare
picturesof men, or parts of the body, of
birds, animals, weapons, utensils, etc. They are
cut in reli
of Ashkelon :
" To my lord, the king, my gods, my sun, the sun of heaven,
Yitia, thy slave, the dust of thy feet,the groom of thy horse.
At the feet of my lord the king, seven and seven times I ptraost-e
myself upon my back and upon my breast. Surely I
them all,but each makes a judiciousselection in pro- portion
to his sense of importance or his desire to
ingratiatehimself with the Pharaoh.
1 Winckler, Altorient. Forschungen, i. 2, p. 149.
100 SYEIA AND PALESTINE
The sender of each letter assures the ki
helmets, triangularbows, square or double-axe-shaped
shields,and short swords. They fought in chariots,
which, unlike those of the Syrians and Egyptians,
carried three warriors.1
Our earliest knowledge of the religionof the Hittites
is derived from the tr