1. Kumarajiva Kumarajiva was a Kuchean Buddhist monk who became a
Mahayana adherent and settled in Changan, the imperial capital of China. He
is most famous for the prolific translation of Buddhist texts written in
Sanskrit to Chinese.
2. Skillful means S
“at. .“.v‘_._._a.‘.~.‘-.~.r.m.-i-. maﬁa-
136 CHAPTER 11
the leadership of Rennyo quickly moved in to fill the void, in company
with the Zen sect that appealed to many of the former samurai followers
of Ippen. During the Tokugawa period the national syste
8 CHAPTER I
Shugena'é. The more purely Japanese forms of Buddhism were generally
to discard this interest during their development in the Kamakura period,
but it was initially an important meeting point and offered Buddhism a
natural entrée into Japanes
THE FOUNDING OF MOUNT KOYA
The Founding of Mount Koya and Kukai's
George J. Tanabe,Jr.
Mount Koya, the headquarters of the Shingon sect, is one of the most beautiful
of the monastic complexes in Japan. Situated high in the mountains
En the Ascetic
Linda Klepinger Keenan
At the end of the seventh century there lived in the mountains of central Japan a
man named En no Ozunu, who came to be known as En no Gyoja. The word
groin means “one who performs religious practices“ it was use
'l‘I-H}: SPREAD or 13,115 GHOST PESTWM,
IN THE SEVENTH Mt'n\="r1t of 840, thcjapancsc pllgrxm Enmn (7‘)3~864)
mach; his; way southwest From Mount" \X/unthi (in present—day Shansi)
toward the "limp; Ctlpttal ol‘Ch'angmm. l‘lIS Journal entry
ZEN BUDDHISM IS STILL, I think, relatively little understood in the West. It is
also true, however, that recently many Westerners have shown an increasing
interest in Zen, an interest that has been greatly stimulated by the late
Mmbm‘m as ﬂlk
(4 :5 :4 It is the purpose of this chapter to discuss
Nembutsu belief and practices among the Japanese people
from ancient times to the present day. We ﬁnd in Nem-
butsu some of the main characteristics of pop
PART II THE DEVELOPMENT AND ELABORATION OF JAPANESE RELIGION
The Buddhist sects founded during the Kamakura period constitute the
dominant lines of Buddhist institutions down to the present day. In this setting
Shinto tended to be overshadowed by Buddh
Mahayana and Theravada. Explain what they are, how they are different, etc.
o Several distinct Buddhist traditions were in existence as early as the late
third century BCE. These traditions can be categorized in two ways:
Mahayana and Theravada
Five phases The five phases is a fivefold conceptual scheme that many
traditional Chinese fields use to explain a wide array of phenomena from cosmic
cycles to the interaction between internal organs. The five phases are wood, fire,
earth, metal and wa
o The term Bodhisattva refers to someone on the path to Awakening.
The Mahayana has conceived them as having renounced the ultimate
state out of pure compassion towards all beings, and can therefore
refer to anyone en route to enlightenment.
THE FORMATION OF JAPANESE RELIGION
stimulus provided by the entrance of Buddhism. The time span and complex
character of Shinto's emergence can be appreciated just by looking at the
origins of the word "Shinto."
For many centuries the religious
Sea of Japan
- .;.'. "
to the present, religion has played an
J A P A N
For more detailed maps showing the distribution and concentration of various religions in
Japan, see Joseph
54 THE BUDDHIST TRADITION
welfare of the world; but what I have done has been done
that men may conform to Righteousness.
All the good deeds that I have done have been accepted
and followed by the people. And so obedience to mother. and
72 THE BUDDHIST TRADITION
“For gods and men. far and wide, he has; Opened the gate
(if ifnfﬁt’itaiity‘ Of ihé mic": Wilt‘ﬁi 01‘ (Emma ti}; spoiges an:
pure pi'cccpts, thc axie is \V’Ciifﬂiﬁfﬂiitﬂ meditatiim, i363 fail.
indestmctibic wisdom. and the hub, w
20 Han China
call you a bird or a beast? Yet you possess a human face.
What a fate to be born with such base qualities! “1‘
As the crisis of the peasant economy deepened and signs
of social and political malaise appeared for all to see, three
kinds of rea