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Chapter 6
Analog Electrical Devices and Measurements
l
^
k
I
Conductor
Figure 6.1 Current-carrying conductor
Magnetic field B
in a magnetic eld.
6.2 ANALOG DEVICE
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5.5
Systematic and Random Errors
171
But let us think about this. The insidious aspect of systematic error has been revealed. Why
doubt a measurement indication and
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Chapter 5
Page 162
Uncertainty Analysis
This chapter approaches uncertainty analysis as an evolution of information from test design
through nal data analysis. While the
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Page 135
4.5
135
Chi-Squared Distribution
with degrees of freedom, n M N 1. The pooled standard deviation of the means of x is
dened by
hsx i
hsx i p
4:22
MN
When the number o
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Page 153
Problems
153
4. Miller, I., and J.E. Freund, Probability and Statistics for Engineers, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1985.
5. Bury, K., Statistical Di
Applications
Most physical properties that are
continuous or regular in time or
space with variations due to
random error
Failure or durability projections;
events whose outcomes tend to be
skewed tow
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Page 105
3.4
Transfer Functions
105
Imaginary
Im[G(i )]
M( )
( )
Re[G(i )]
Real
Figure 3.20 Complex plane approach to describing
frequency response.
system to the input signa
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Page 99
3.3
Special Cases of the General System Model
99
3
Td
0.013 S
Steady response
Output signal E(t) [V]
E1C03
2
1.9
Damped
oscillations
1
Settling
time
(10%)
90%
Rise
time
0.0
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Chapter 7
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Sampling, Digital Devices, and Data Acquisition
various levels of gray shading. The grayscale images in Figures 7.30 and 7.31 are 8-bit digital images;
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6.4
Analog Devices: Resistance Measurements
225
temperature sensor has a resistance of 100 V at 0 C, determine the value of R2 that would balance
the bridge at 0 C.
K
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Chapter 10
Flow Measurements
Example 10.8
For the orice meter in Example 10.3 with b 0:5 and a pressure drop of 50 cm Hg, calculate the
permanent pressure loss du
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Page 453
10.6
Insertion Volume Flow Meters
453
Turbine meters offer a low-pressure drop and very good accuracy. A typical instruments
systematic uncertainty in ow rate is $0.2
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Chapter 9
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Pressure and Velocity Measurements
SOLUTION The absolute pressure is found directly from Equation 9.2. Using the pressure at
the free surface as the ref
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Page 393
9.5
Pressure
transducer
Pressure Transducer Calibration
Activation
signal
p1
lowpressure
side
Pipe
393
p2
highpressure
side
Diaphragm
To
pressure
source
Needle
To
pre
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15:4:56
Chapter 9
Page 414
Pressure and Velocity Measurements
*
the correlation R12(Dx ), where
*
R12 Dx
Z Z
A
*
*
*
*
I 1 Dx I 2 x Dx dx
9:54
*
so identifying the common particl
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Chapter 8
Page 360
Temperature Measurements
for conduction errors. Conduction errors should be minimized through appropriate design and
installation of temperature probes.
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8.7
Physical Errors in Temperature Measurement
363
One shield with an emissivity of 1 provides for an improvement over the case of no shields, but a
better choice of
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Chapter 8
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Temperature Measurements
Table 8.7 Reference Functions for Selected Letter Designated Thermocouples
The relationship between emf and temperature is prov
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Chapter 8
Page 312
Temperature Measurements
0 and 100 into equally spaced degree divisions. This places 50 C as shown in Figure 8.1. What
assumption is implicit in this m
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Page 291
7.8
Analog Input-Output Communication
291
Analog
signal in
+
Channel 1
CH1
+ Hi
+
Signal conditioning
and A/D conversion
GRD
Floating
input
Through
+
Channel N
CH N
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Chapter 7
Page 276
Sampling, Digital Devices, and Data Acquisition
Example 7.4
Compute the relative effect of quantization error (eQ/Ei) in the quantization of a 100-mV a
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Page 261
7.2
Sampling Concepts
261
understand how instruments interface with data-acquisition systems, and
perform basic image processing on digital images.
7.2 SAMPLING CONCEPTS
C
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Page 321
8.4
Electrical Resistance Thermometry
321
Suppose the coefcient of resistance for this RTD is 0.003925 C1. A temperature measurement
is made by placing the RTD in th