The case of Given (GI for gastrointestinal, V for video, and EN for endoscopy) is a classic example of
technological innovation combined with entrepreneurial features which achieved substantial
customer base and success in the market. Given
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BM, Jolly C (2015). "Hybrid Spreading
Mechanisms and T Cell Activation Shape
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central integrin involved in the establishment of virological
synapses, which facilitate efficient cell-to-cell spreading of HIV-1.
The gp160 spike contains binding domains for both CD4 and
The first step in fusion involv
HIV-1 entry, as well as entry of many other retroviruses, has long
been believed to occur exclusively at the plasma membrane.
More recently, however, productive infection by pHindependent, clathrin-dependent endocytosis of H
of progeny virions may be composed of RNA
HIV-1 and SIVcpz, Nef does not inhibit T-cell activation and it has
lost this function. Without this function, T cell depletion is more
between HIV copies (viral load) and CD4 counts over the avera
HIV deaths in 2014.
South Africa (12.51%)
DR Congo (2.17%)
1. 10.1097/00001432-200502000-00003. P
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Choe S, Unutmaz D, Burkhart M, Di
Marzio P, Marmon S, Sutton RE, Hill CM,
Davis CB, Peiper SC, Schall TJ, Littman
DR, Landau NR (1996). "Identification of
on macrophages for a productive infection and HIV can also
infect a subtype of myeloid dendritic cells, which probably
constitute a reservoir that maintains infection when CD4+ T cell
numbers have declined to extremely low levels.
Some people are
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L, Njera R (2002). "Molecular
epidemiology of HIV-1 genetic forms and
its significance for vaccine development
and therapy". Lancet Infectious
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of genome-damaging reactive oxygen. Thus, Michod et al.
an infected T cell can transmit virus directly to a target T cell via a
virological synapse. Secondly, an antigen presenting cell
(APC) can also transmit HIV to T cells by a process that
that almost all broadly neutralising antibodies that have so far
been identified (from a subset of patients that have been infected
for many months to years) bind to or, are adapted to cope with,
these envelope glycans.
The molecular structure of the
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2. Jump up^ "IV. VIRUSES > F. ANIMAL
VIRUS LIFE CYCLES > 3. The Life Cycle
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of HIV originally named the virus. They also used Kaposi's
Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections, the name by which a task
force had been set up in 1981. In the general press, the
term GRID, which stood for gay-related immune deficiency, had
1. . 80 (19
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believed to have originated in non-human primates in Westcentral Africa, and are believed to have transferred to humans (a
process known aszoonosis) in the early 20th century.
HIV-1 appears to have originated in southern Cameroon through
Maize (/mez/ MAYZ; Zea mays subsp. mays,
from Spanish: maz after Tano mahiz), also known as corn, is a
large grain plant first domesticated by indigenous
peoples in Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The six major types
of corn are dent corn, flint corn, p
1. 4): 524
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