ire difference in a
if some chemical
in diﬂerence in a
)r heat transfer, a
otential for trans-
:rm mass transfer
)ulk ﬂuid motion,
arm mass transfer
an of water being
id motion due to
felative motio
724 Chapter 12 I Radiation: Processes and Properties
Whave come to recognize that heat transfer by conduction and convec
requires the presence of a temperature gradient
970
Appendix C l One-Dimensional, Steady-Slate Conduction with Generation
TABLE C.3 One—Dimensional, Steady—State Solutions to the Heat
Equation for Uniform Generation in a Plane Wall with One
Adiabat
694 Chapter 11 I Heat Exchangers
or
: 2.1(1889 W/K) =
2
100 W/m2 - K 39‘7 m
I!
Comments: With the heat exchanger sized (A, = 39.7 ml) and placed into 0
tion, its actual perform
=oo335
I: 0.9664
= 0.84 <1
at the cover plate is
9E EM, (5800 K). It
, in which case it is
I}, appearing in both
in possible to replace
: properties associated
ionsider conditions for
rature T5, withi
13.1 I The View Factor 815
summation rule, Equation 13.4, to each of the surfaces in the enclosure, In addition,
N(N — l)/2 view factors may be obtained from the MN — l)/2 applications of the
reciproc
late of length 0.5 m and
,‘ajrstream at a tempera-
pf 10 m/s. Because of
t is turbulent over the
ties of segmented, inde—
'5 attached to the lower
pproximately isothermal
.e. The electrical heater
he
634
Chapter 10 I Boiling and Condensation
where C” = 0.0128 and n = 1.0. Substituting numerical values, the bo‘_
heat ﬂux is
q’; = 279 x 10‘6 N - s/m2 x 2257 x 103 J/kg
X [9.8 m/s2 (957.9 — 0.5956) kg
I Problems
gig/$2,111, = 440 x 10‘6
Iii-on, the nucleate boil-
d n = 1.7.
atmospheric pressure, and values of TI = 133.7°C
and T2=158.6°C are recorded. If n = 1,
ml; 9.7 ‘
ancy-driven ﬂows on
ontal cold (T, < Tm):
hot (T5 > Tm) plates: '
_ p surface of cold plal;
tlom surface of cold
' , (0) top surface of hot
, and (d) bollom
cc of hot plate.
Since then, howe
498
Chapter 8 I Internal Flow
or
dqconv : mcpdTm ( -'
Equation 8.36 may be cast in a convenient form by expressing the rate of .5
surface perimeter (P = 7TD for a circula
528
8.9
Convection Mass Transfer
Chapter 8 l Internal Flow
2. Solving Equation 8.42 over the range 0 S x S L yields the axial variation of
mean temperature for the two extreme
idii r,- and r0, re—
hiponents, and at
Lstribution in the
int? How do the
o
.
l in a thin-walled
i, and the exother-
i but temperature-
ip(—A/Ta), where
mixture temper—
' by an insulating
nductivity
420 Chapter 7 I External Flow
respectively, and the results are represented by the solid curves of the follo '
schematic:
300
250 r
200
h, (W/mZ-K)
G
O
100
50
8.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.3
e that the solution to
(6.44)
geometry and may be
the free stream, the
:e of geometry on the;
inay be expressed as
efficient is
(6.45)
i (6.46)
Equation 6.46 states
liderable importance
dimensionless
.symbolic form,
'stribution.
eter D = ax,
banal conditions
l .
pnstant 1ndepen-
ed to determine
3.2 I An Alternative Conduction Analysis 1 15
where A = 7702/4 = wa2x2/4. Separating variables,
{abolic proﬁles).
Ectangular ﬁn with
n is of nonuniform
; must be retained,
ttial or hyperbolic
3.6 I Heat Transfer ﬁ-om Extended Surfaces I 5 1
functions. As a special case, consider the annular
[\D
[\9
5.5
The Plane Wall with Convection
Chapter 5 l Transient Conduction,
where the Biot number is Bi E hL/k. In dimensionless form the functional depe
dence may now be expressed as
0
302
5.10
F mite-Difference Methods
«5.3; Analytical solutions
for some simple
two- and three—
dimensional
geometries are found
in Section 55.2.
Chapter 5 I Transient Conduction
Analytical solution
214
Chapter 4- I Two-Dimensional, Steady-State Conduction
Each node represents a certain region, and its temperature is a measure of
average temperature of the region. For example, the temperatu
250
4.73
T
6mm
Assuming one-dimensional conduction and using a
ﬁnite-difference method representing the grid by ten
nodes in the x direction, estimate the temperature distri-
bution for the grid. Him:
58 Chapter 2 I Introduction to Conduction
Recall that conduction refers to the transport of energy in a medium due to a
temperature gradient, and the physical mechanism is one of random atomic or mo
contact resistance of R2,. = 3 X 10“4 m2 - K/W. The
convection heat transfer coefﬁcient at the outer surface of
the sheath is 10 W/m2 - K, and the temperature of the am—
bient air is 20°C. If the temp
fixed geome-
is on the rate
:tric current.
L4 Q/m) in a
.is circulated
16 foregoing
rrents in the
safety rea-
nansfer by
10.4 W/m).
ing the rod
tld have to
Dr 11 = 250
5‘.
ext is espe-
amment 1,
r thi
whi29346_ch06_346-455.qxd
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Chapter 6 Viscous Flow in Ducts
P6.55 The reservoirs in Fig. P6.55 contain water at 20C. I