Airplanes and Airmen in Europe
American Developments (AEA, Curtiss Company)
Competitions and Prizes
Patent Wars in Early Aviation Industry
Early Developments in Aviation
Q. Why we want to know directions?
Provide a datum for following a line across the surface of the
Relate positions to each other
DEFINITIONS OF DIRECTION
Course: The intended track.
Heading: The direction
Timing in flying is of crucial importance. Therefore,
pilots need to have a good understanding of both the
nature and measurement of time.
In the navigation skills test for the PPL, a candidate
must arrive at his destinatio
VFR aeronautical chart should clearly display all the
necessary features and aeronautical information that he
needs for visual navigation.
The pilot must be able to read and interpret information
FORM OF THE EARTH
THE EARTH'S ORBIT AND ROTATION
The Earth orbits the Sun once every year.
The Earth's axis is inclined, at an angle of 66.5 to the orbital
plane, OR 23.5 to a line passing normally through the orbital
SHAPE OF THE E
AERONAUTICAL CHARTS AND
Aeronautical Charts for Visual Navigation
The chart that many VFR pilots use for visual navigation is the
ICAO 1:500 000 or 1:250 000 scale
When navigating, a light aircraft pilot does not need to know th
PRINCIPLES OF DEAD
RECKONING VISUAL AIR
The most effective method of navigating visually cross-country is
known as dead reckoning navigation.
In dead reckoning navigation, the pilot starts from a known
location and us
When flying cross country on a visual navigation route, you will
be flying in accordance with the Visual Flight Rules (VFR).
Therefore, you must at all times maintain Visual Meteorological
We will use the terms chart and map interchangeably.
accurate headings and speeds.
If the wind forecast is accurate, and your pre-flight navigation
MEASURING TRACK ANGLE AND
Having learnt something about aeronautical charts, direction,
speed, distance and time, you are now ready to learn how to use
this knowledge in order to develop the techniques and skills