Testing for Validity
Argument form vs. substitution
The form of an argument is present when you
abstract away from the particular instances used in
the argument given.
What does this mean?
e.g. all men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Thus,
Validity, Truth, Soundness,
Strength, and Cogency
In both the deductive and inductive
case we will be evaluating two things
The strength of the inferential claim
Is the argument logically strong?
The factual claim about the premises and
Deduction and induction:
How to tell them apart and what
species of them exist.
What is deduction?
A deduction is a argument where the
conclusion is to follow necessarily from the
premises. Thus, if the premises are true then
the conclusion is true b
Kinds of non-arguments
Statements of belief/opinion Explanations
Loosely associated statements
Pieces of advice
What are the defining feature of
Basic concepts in logic: Arguments, Premises,
What is Logic?
Logic may be defined as the organized body of knowledge, or
science, that evaluates arguments (Pg1 Hurley).
Formal logic is the science of ded