Binds to receptor, signaling transduction (affects intracellular domain which leads to
phosphorylation of something leading to Kinase cascade). Result of kinase cascade is
activation of transcription factor (IRF3 and NFkB). They go down different pathways
Burnettclonal selection theory
The central mechanism of how your body fights infection.
Clonal selection during infection by strep throat. Red, soar, pus-sy throat. The bacteria
thrive on throat tissue and are coated in little hairs called M protein. The
Local and systemic inflammation
When macrophage recognizes pathogen specific substances, they can start cell
signaling through toll like receptor for recognizing LPS, very characteristic on
bacterial membrane. This will cause signaling cascade inside cyto
Immune (Lymphoid) Organs
Bone Marrow and thymus are primary lymphoid organs
Right lymphatic duct, Thoracic duct, tonsils, adenoids, spleen, and Peyers patches
If tissues are not wrapped by capsule with well-defined boundary from neighbors,
Another flower bundle shape is C1, that activates the classical pathway.
Mannose binding lectin will activate a whole cascade of complement activation, so C1
does the same. C1 binds to C reactive protein on the pathogen surface activates the
Light Chain Vl and Cl. 1 V domain 3 C domains per chain.
Highly variable region in Vh and Vl, CDR complementality determining region, three
of them, separated by framework regions
Epitope binds to CDR of antibody
Noncovalent between antibody and antigen
1. The thymus and the bone marrow are primary lymphoid organs, and they are the
sites of leukocyte production and development.
2. a) The heavy chain genes are rearranged, joining DH and JH segments and then the
VH segment to the newly formed DJH segment.
4-1: a) Antibodies are the secreted version of the membrane bound immunoglobulins.
b) They are both B-cell antigen receptors, produced by plasma cells. correct
4-2: Antibodies are glycoproteins with four polypeptide chains. Two of the chains are
The lymphatic system filters out pathogens from the lymph and removes fluid
from the interstitial spaces, restoring the fluid to the circulatory system, which is why it is
only one way. The ducts only need to take the fluid from point a to point b, at whi
After sperm and egg mix.
Recombination to get to
VDJ for heavy chain
VJ for light chain (kappa
and lamda) Transcription to
get to next step. Addition of