Idealism, Monads, Intuition, Felicific Calculus
metaphysical theory stating reality consists of ideas and the minds that house them. In
aesthetics, idealists maintain that judgments about art are subjective. REALITY IS
CREATED IN THE MIND.
Felicific Calculus and State of Nature
Felicific Calculus (aka. Utility calculus, hedonistic calculus)
-created by Bentham (ethical hedonist)
-calculates the degree of pleasure that an action will cause. Bentham believed moral
rightness/wrongness of an ac
-philosophical movement that became prominent in the20th century
-deals with human existence, problems humans face and place of humans in the universe.
-humans are free and responsible for determining themselves through their acts and will
-Born in russia
-Wanted to be writer, obtained permission to leave Russia, went to new York and never returned
Objectivism: reality exists independent of consciousness/ reality = facts
definition: moral rule that is absolute.
Kant: evaluates the motivation for action.
- Because I must, I can
- You do it because its difficult, not because its easy!
- Do your duty but have no emotion while doing it; only your duty
Idealism, monads, intuition, will
metaphysical theory stating reality consists of ideas and
the minds that house them. In aesthetics, idealists
maintain that judgments about art are subjective.
REALITY IS CREATED IN THE MIND.
Berkeley was an id
state of 2 parts, ex. Mind and matter are separate, good and evil, yin and yang, 2 elements
of existence: physical and spiritual.
Substance dualists (Descartes)
reality composed of mental an
SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT
Hedonism: pleasure was supreme good, pursue pleasure
Stoicism:I can swallow my pain
Cosmopolitanism: life is cosmic drama, control
TERMS AND REVIEW FOR TEST:
Buddhism: individual harmony, all life is suffering because of cravings, reincarnation
Aesthetics: area of philosophy that studies how people perceive meaning/importance of
TERMS TO KNOW FOR EXAM
Intuitionism: use reason to make moral choices, instinctive knowledge
Epistemology: area of philos that deals with study of knowledge
Dualism: reality is composed of 2 things: mind and matter
Cosmological Argument: supreme being mus
Rawls, Chomsky, Ryle
Veil of ignorance:
prevents people from knowing themselves, race, sex, social class
imaginative device for considering what counts as just and fair in a state of society. When
theory that says life is meaningless and human striving is pointless because nothing
matters. ethics, nihilists believe that there is no such thing as right or wrong because
moral truths dont exist
Nothing can be known, negative.
true nihilist be