Elizabeth Sipple (Miller)
BY 206 Microbiology
Schistosomiasis: Disease and Prevention
Schistosomiasis, also called bilharzia, is a disease seen
in tropical regions caused by parasitic blood flukes. Three
types of flukes infect humans with schist
Dermatology-the study of the skin and associated mucus membranes
There are many infectious diseases that cause changes in the skin
Neoplastic-new, uncontrolled growth of abnormal tissue (tumor)
Dermatitis-inflammation of the skin
One of the sequellas of c
Bacterial Urogenital Diseases:
UTIs are most common seen in clinical infections. E coli is normally in the colon, but should not
get into the bladder. 80% of UTIs are caused by E Coli. Normally easy to treat
BY 206 Howm I Gonna Breathe With No Air?
Selected topics from Ch 21; Respiratory Disease
Plagued humankind since ancient times
It remains a massive global health problem (1/3 of worlds population have
Causative agent: Mycobacterium t
Oral and Gastrointestinal diseases:
Where in the gastrointestinal tract would you expect to find normal microflora? Mouth,
Large intestines (last third)
Dental caries- aka tooth decay (CAVITY). Caused by bacteria that build up and cause
plaque. The combin
Ecology-the study of the relationships between organisms in an environment
Community- the population of different organisms within an environment
Producers-organisms that capture energy from the sun (autotroph). Anything green
Ch 23 Cardiovascular Microbiology
The heart lies between the lungs in the pericardium. This is made up of three layers:
Thin internal endocardium
Thick muscular myocardium
There are 2 atria and 2 ventricles
Can be from
The process of _ results in the synthesis of a new protein.
Which of the following is correctly associated with PCR technology?
an insertion of foreign DNA followed by annealing (ligase
Which of the antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis in susceptible bacteria? Tetracycline
Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents include all of the following EXCEPT alteration of
"MRSA" is an acronym referring to: a co
Which of the following is the best description of the function of interferon? part of a messaging
system that stimulates cells to produce anti-viral proteins
Complement has an interesting function in immunity. What is it? It can punch holes in cell
The process of _ results in the synthesis of a new protein. Translation
What is a disease referred to when symptoms develop rapidly and it runs its course quickly? Acute
Which of the following is correctly associated with PCR technology? Repeated heating
Contaminated water should be boiled for 2-5 minutes to make it safe for drinking. False
What is the main mechanism of action for most surfactants in terms of their antimicrobial activity? they are able to rupture the cell membrane
A turbid culture is indi
The prevalence rate of a disease includes both old and newly diagnosed cases of disease. True
Worldwide spread of an infectious disease: pandemic
The larger the animal reservoir, the more likely it is that the associated infectious disease can be
sequences mean that the recipient DNA will "fit" onto the cut out piece of foreign DNA
Why do cleavage sites from restriction enzymes have a very specific base sequence?
For most patients that have been bitten by a rabid bat or raccoon, pos
What is one of the principal reasons for the long latent period (lag time) associated with the
onset of AIDS? As the patient ages they run out of T cells, the cells are not doing their jobs
IT TAKES A WHILE BEFORE THE MISTAKES PILE UP
Dermatitis, conjunctivitis, folliculitis, vaginitis, and stomatitis all refer to an "itis". What is that?
An eschar is seen in several infectious diseases as well as in burn patients. What is it? A
or crust that forms over the surf
Why do AIDS patients often have diseases like shingles, cold sores, and HSV-2? Because
immunosuppression leads to latent viruses being expressed (causing problems)
What 2 factors are linked to vaginitis caused by Gardnerella? a drop in vaginal pH, on
Hyper-means too much. Immune responses that are too much are considered allergies.
Anaphylaxis-immediate, exaggerated allergic reaction to antigens.
TYPE 1 HYPERSENSITIVITY
May be local or generalized
Generalized reactions are often life threateni
B cells and T cells (2 different kinds of lymphocytes, type of leukocytes)
Bursa of Fabricius (named B cell) similar to that of the chicken. Makes antiBodies
T Cell (named from Thymus) programmed in the thymus, important target in HIV infections.
BinaryFission-cell duplicates its components and divides into two new cells
(not true mitosis)
Budding-small, new cell develops from surface of existing cell and later
separates from parent cell. Usually seen in yeast, eukaryotic fungi.
Fungi can use mito
Cow needs bacteria in their stomachs to aid in digestion. Cows cannot break
down the cellulose in grass without the help certain microbes.
The grass is so hard to digest because of the cellulose. Cellulose is made
with special cross fi
Viruses are not alive because they do not have a true cellular structure. Cell
membranes are stolen, not actually made.
Viruses are classified by the kinds of nucleic acids they contain. (DNA or
DNA is circular in prokaryotes.
DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid. Long double chain of nucleotides. Genetic
material of a cell (cookbook)
Chromosome-Structure that contains DNA from an organism. May be linear or
circular, single or multiple. 1 chromosome is one
Hosts and Disease relationships
Most microbes start by targeting a sysytem
Pathogen-parasite or other agent capable of causing disease
Etiology-the cause of a disease or a problem
Types of disease / host relationships
Mutualism-both members of the relatio
Geneticengineering-Moving a gene or recipe from one organism or another
3 Ways to transfer genes from one organism to another
Bacteria do it
Vertical gene transfer-genes pass from parent to daughter
Lateral gene tran
Disinfectant-A chemical agent used on INANIMATE OBJECTS to destroy
microorganisms. Does not kill everything.
Disinfection-the reduction of the number of pathogenic organisms to the point that they
pose no danger of disease.
Antiseptic-A chemical agent tha