History: 2700 BC Nei Ching, 4th century BC Greece, Susruta, Roman swamps.
Plasmodium: protozoa (falciparum, vivax, malariae, avale), complex cycle.
Asexual cycle: sporozoites enters bloodstream, enter liver cells and reproduce
asexually into schiz
History: pre-Incan pottery, white leprosy, Andean/valley sickness, black fever,
William Leishman (Glasgow, dum dum fever in 1903), Charles Donovan
published discovery a few weeks after, Leishmania donovani.
350 million at risk, 88 countries, 4
Know Your World
Claire & Corey Nepal
Catherine & Christina Niger
Saharan/Sub-Saharan, hot/dry, but tropical in
Infectious diseases caused by nematodes or roundworms
Metazoans, rudimentary nervous/digestive systems, very developed reproductive
Helminth parasites: roundworms, flatworms (tapeworms).
Nematodes: 80% of the animals that inhabit the planet
Infectious Diseases & Cancer
Helicobacter pylori: spiral bacteria in stomach in early 1900, Barry James
Marshall finds cause of stomach ulcers and gastritis in 1984 (Nobel Prize in
2005), grade 1 carcinogen in 1994 by International Agency in Research for
Human Papilloma Virus
Over 100 types, infects epithelium, warts.
Sexual transmission: over 30 types, genital warts, mostly self-limited, most
common STI, vaginal/anal/oral sex.
HPV & cancer: Georgios Nicholas Papanikolaou (Pap smear), 1976 HPV theory
Health Promotion and Health Education
Stages of Change model: precontemplation (not thinking about changing),
contemplation (thinking), action (deciding to do something), maintenance (keep
going once action occurs), and possible relapse phase, combined wi
Can be collected in many different ways, compiled by many different groups,
represent an average of entire population, lag time sometimes high, trends more
important than actual number.
Grouped into 3 categories: measures of survival/mor
Gram staining of bacterial sample
Gram staining, or Grams method was developed by Danish scientist Hans
Christian Gram around 1884, which is the year he published his work, although the actual
date of discovery is unknown. The tec
History: first written record in 16th century, ancient artifacts in 2000 BC, Nok
civilization = scrotal swelling.
Filariasis: 3 thread-like nematodes (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia
timori). Causes elephantiasis and hydro
Increase in the frequency of decrease in the consistency of stools.
Watery diarrhea: 3 or more liquid or watery stools in 24 hours.
Dysentery: presence of blood and/or mucus in stools.
Persistent diarrhea: lasting for 14 days or more.
History: first reported epidemics similar to dengue in 1779-1780 Egypt,
Indonesia, and the US. Asia has been the area of highest number of cases, with
Ae. aegypti becoming more widespread due to WWII.
4 antigenically distinct serotypes: DENV1/2/3/4
History: Carlos Ribeiro Chagas (1907), Minas Gerais, Brazil, Trypanosoma cruzi,
named after his professor Oswaldo Cruz (parasite), first found in vector, exclusive
to Americas (Southern Argentina to the southern states of the US).
Ascaris is a parasitic nematode and is the largest intestinal roundworm. There are
two well-known species: Ascaris lumbricoides, which infects humans, and Ascaris suum,
which typically infects pigs. A. suum may infect humans and actual
Venomous snakes and snakebites
1.2-5.5 million snakebites/year, 421000-1.8 million envenoming/year, 2000094000 deaths/year.
137 species in Costa Rica, with about 100 being Colubrids.
Only 22 species are considered venomous (Families: Elapidae/Viperidae).
History: 5000 BC, Barthels Skeleton, Phthisis, Consumption (Wasting Illness),
1837 became TB, 1865 infectious disease by Villemin, 1882 Koch.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. africanus, M. bovis.
1/3 of the world is latently infected, kills 2-3
Sociocultural Determinants of Health
Latest public health focus, about 12 determinants, difficult to isolate, UK most
Examples: income, education, social capital, occupation, community structure,
social support, availability of health services.
Primary health care: will it ever be perfect?
I will start off this essay by stating that the fact that primary health care only came
into existence 32 years ago is appalling. Before the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978, did
people just si
Chemical and biological substances that are introduced into the environment to
control by harming and/or killing those living organisms (insects, fungi, plants,
snails, microorganisms, etc.) which destroy plant life and interfere with the food
Robert Hooke discovered the cell.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek animalcules, single lens miscroscope.
Robert Koch (1876) germ theory.
Complexity virus, bacteria, protozoa, fungi/algae.
Organization prokaryote (bacteria/archaea) = no nuclea
Consumption: inhaled, oral.
Pharmacokinetics: 50% of cannabinoids (THC) is inhaled in the mainstream
smoke, effects are perceptible within seconds and fully apparent in a few minutes,
tissue elimination half-life of THC is about 7 days, complete