01/07/2015
Logical Systems
Definition A system designed to model natural language reasoning and
give us an ability to assess natural language arguments.
3 different logical systems with 3 different purposes.
A logical system includes both a logical langua

Bea Hayes Meizoso
1) Propositional Inference Rules
S-Rules
Simplification / decomposition rules which infer two parts from just one
premise.
1. AND (P Q) = P, Q
2. NOR (NOT-EITHER) ~(P v Q) = ~P, ~Q.
3. NIF (FALSE IF-THEN) ~(A B) = A, ~B.
4. IFF (P Q) =

1) Propositional Logic Translations
Propositional Language
~P = Not-P
(P Q) = Both P and Q
(P v Q) = Either P or Q
(P Q) = If P then Q
(P Q) = P if and only if Q
WFF Rules
1) Any capital letter is a WFF.
2) The result of prefixing a WFF with ~ is a WFF.

Bea Hayes-Meizoso
1) Syllogistic Logic Vocabulary
Logic The analysis and appraisal of arguments.
Logical System A system designed to model natural language reasoning
and give us an ability to assess natural language
arguments.
o Includes a logical languag

Teacher Manual
for
Introduction to Logic
(Routledge Press, 2010, second edition)
Harry J. Gensler
John Carroll University
Cleveland, Ohio USA
Using the Textbook 2
Using the LogiCola Software
Answers to Problems 15
Chapters
2: 15
8: 43
11
3: 18 4: 23 5: 25

-Logic: Final Exam Study Guide
1) Normal Quantificational Translations
1. QUANTIFICATIONAL WFF RULES
1) Any capital letter is a WFF
2) The result of prefixing a WFF with ~ is a WFF.
3) The result of joining any two WFFs with or v or or and enclosing th