18. Fluid/ Electrolyte balance I. ADH a. Control i. Osmolarity of plasma- osmoreceptors in hypothalamus 1. Threshold- 280mOsm triggers ADH release ii. BP/BV 1. Stretch receptors- atrial wall/ baroreceptors- aorta/ carotid sinus a. Increase ADH release iii
17. Kidney- Renal physiology I. Anatomy- two kidneys- 3 layers a. Renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pelvis ureter bladder- stores urine i. Renal artery/vein ii. Nephron- 2 mill b. Tubule system i. Bowmans capsule glomerulus proximal tubule (cortex) (medu
16. exchange across a capillary wall I. Capillary a. Anatomy- specialized to allow transport i. Walls- 1 micron thick- endothelial cell thick ii. Tight junction- between endothelial cells iii. Forms pores that small molecules go through 1. Water, electrol
15. Body Fluids I. Compartments a. Intercelluar fluid- in cells (ICF b. Extracelluar fluid- out of cell (ECF) i. Interstitial tissue- between cells ii. Plasma- water in blood c. Exchange from plasma to interstitial- seconds to minutes d. Exchange from int
14. Blood pressure/ volume control again Things to use HR- change in chronotropic state SV- starlings law; inotropic state (EB1) TPR- vaso constrict/dilate of arterioles Blood volume- capacitance vessels- kidney- H2O and Na+ control I. Control Systems a.
11. Electrocardiogram I. Electrocardiogram- ECG, EKG a. Cells stay depolarized i. Repolarization starts where depolarization stops b. Recording depolarization i. Depolarization is fast ii. Repolarization is slow c. Vector representation i. Magnitude- size
10. Electrophysiology of Cardiovascular Tissue I. Cardiac muscle fibers a. Anatomy i. Small mononucleated ii. Electrically connected 1. Intercalated disks 2. Contract as a single unit b. Contractile Fibers i. Generate pressure ii. Striated Structure iii.
9. Cardiovascular system I. Blood a. Volume- 8% body weight b. Composition i. Plasma 1. Mostly water 2. Salts- electrolytes 3. Glucose, etc 4. Proteins a. Ablemin i. Globular ii. Made in liver iii. functions 1. Blood oncotic pressure 2. Carrier protein- c
6. Smooth Muscle I. Visceral (single unit) vs skeletal muscle a. Skeletal i. Fiber size 1. Diameter 10-80 microns 2. length of muscle ii. Structure 1. Striated, rigid structure 2. Shortens 25-30% with contraction 3. Actin: myosin ratio 2-4:1 iii. MAP 1. F
5. Muscle Mechanics I. Types of contraction a. Isometric- not changing length i. Not length change- instead develops tension during contraction ii. Trying to lift something heavy, but cannot move b. Isotonic- not change in tension i. Shortens w/ constant
4. Skeletal muscle Muscle always pulls, pushing is from joints I. Anatomy a. musclemyofibermyofilaments i. Muscle- all multinucleated ii. Myofiber- stretches the length of the muscle iii. NMJ fiber- myofibril 1. Z-lines anchor myosin, actin and titin 2. S
3. Organization of nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) brain spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)- everything else Somatic motor system Somatic sensory system Autonomic motor system I. General a. Cell types/ functions i. Neurons 1. Sensory
Synaptic Transmission 1) electrical Synapses, direct electrical contact Gap junction pores between cells 2) chemical Synapses use neurotransmitter/receptors presynaptic neuron NTS receptor Synapse Post synaptic neuron I. Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ) a. An