Categorical variablePlaces an element into one of several groups or categories.
Note: arithmetic operations, such as addition and averaging
are NOT meaningful for data resulting from a categorical
Data are almost always words but could be number
Probability allows us to make the inferential jump from sample
to population. The purpose of this chapter is to see what the
laws of probability tell us without going into the mathematics
of probability theory.
Chance behavior is unpredictable in the shor
The Ogive is constructed by plotting a point corresponding to
the cumulative frequency, cumulative relative frequency, or
cumulative percent frequency and each upper class limit.
Because of the gaps that occur between adjacent classes, the
midpoints of th
controlled so that more informative data can be obtained about
the variable of interest.
cross-sectional data- data collected at the same or
approximately the same point in time, for example, data
detailing the number of building permits issued in june 20
What is film?
A medium that uses sight and sound
to present ideas and information,
usually on a screen
How do we study film? Through
Pictures and sound
How do we judge film?
High art vs low art
Entertainment vs serious a
H ow does a character na r rator and a non-character nar rator appear and work?
-omniscient voice (All knowing and All seeing etc
-unseen character (i.e. ghost)
-a character in the film that tu rns to the viewer to narrate (crossing the diegetic/nondieget
Important point: space alters how we feel/see/hear time and vice-versa
Openings, Closing and Patterns of Development:
Openings: provide what is to come and initiates us into the narrative
Vocab: in medias res (in latin: in the middle of things)
Chapter 3: Film art
Narrative, Principles and Construction
-Cause and effect
-a series of events (not necessarily shown in linear order) that a movie the story/narrative forward
1) Cause: wall-e is alone on earth
2) Effect: wall-e is lonely, so he
Discrete variable (how many)-a quantitative variable that can
assume a countable number of values corresponding to isolated
points along a line interval. That is, there is a gap between
any two values.
Continuous variable (how much)-a quantitative variabl