Lecture 1: Introduction
Philosophy 10
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Content Introduction
Administrative
Information
Who I am?
Rick Grush
Professor of Philosophy
UC San Diego
Who else is inv
Ill be home in time for dinner unless I either get caught up at work or traffic is unusually bad.
D v (C v T)
D = Ill be home in time for dinner
C = I get caught up at work
T = traffic is unusually bad.
If you dont get a job this summer, then you should t
Lecture 15
Additional Examples
Pram oil filters: pay a little more
now, or pay a lot more later.
As the number of laws on the
book has increased over the past
50 years, the number of crimes
committed has also increased. So
if we cut down on the number of
ACADEMIC INTEGRIT Y
Reminder from the syllabus:
CONTRADIC TION,
REDUC TIO, EXPLOSION
Psets must be completed and submitted independently.
Working together constitutes cheating.
Please familiarize yourself with university policies on
plagiarism, cheating,
MIDTERM PREPARATION
Recommendations for midterm preparation:
CONDITIONALS IN NATURAL
LANGUAGE AND IN FOL
Review the readings.
Understand the meanings of terms written in the margins of the
textbook.
Practice writing truth tables and checking them for nece
Practice Quiz 4
Name: _ Section: _ Score (for grader use only)
This quiz has 9 questions, and is worth 110 points total (11% of the total points for this course). Point
values cfw_or each question are listed in brackets after the question number. Five poi
Practice Quiz One
Name: _ Section: Score:
This quiz has 11 questions, and is worth 110 points total (11% of the t '
. . _ otal pomts for thi .
Point values for each question are listed In brackets after the question number. Five poirsitgoolnstegis
exam ar
Practice Final Exam
Name: /
and is worth 450 points total (45% of the total points for this course). It
is broken down into six parts: parts 15 each correspond to material from chapters 1-5 of the text,
and from exams 1-5. Each of these sections is worth
Practice Quiz 2
Name: Section: Score
This quiz has 9 questions, and is worth 110 points total (11% of the total points for this course). Point
values for each question are listed in brackets after the question number. Five points on this quiz are
earned b
Practice Quiz 3 .
Name: Section: Score:
This quiz has 9 questions, and is worth 110 points total (11% of the total points for this course). Point
values for each question are listed in brackets after the question number. Five points on this quiz are
earne
Practice Quiz 5
Name: Section: Score (for grader use only):
This quiz has 12 questions, and is worth 110 points total (11% of the total points for this course.) For
multiple choice questions there is obviously no partial credit, but for other questions, t
PSETS
Reminder from the software instructions:
CONSEQUENCE AND
EQUIVALENCE
PHIL 202
FEB 5, 2016
Caveat: you wont have this opportunity on exams. So
make sure that you learn from your errors.
1
RECAP
2
RECAP
Logical necessity: guaranteed to be true in ever
RECAP
INTRODUC TION TO THE
BOOLEANS
If an argument is invalid, you can often prove this using a
counterexample.
If an argument is valid, you can often prove this using a
formal proof within a formal deductive system, or else an
informal proof.
1
2
RECAP
Q
RECAP
Double negation: From P, infer P.
FORMAL PROOFS AND
BOOLEAN LOGIC
Reductio: If a contradiction follows from the supposition
that P together with your premises, infer P.
Explosion: If a contradiction follows from
your premises, infer anything.
1
2
QU
FOR TODAY
PHIL 10
The plan for today:
overview of the course
INTRODUC TION
TO LOGIC
organization of the course (syllabus, policies, etc.)
Get a syllabus.
1
OBJEC TIVES
2
THE PLAN FOR THE COURSE
Broad aims:
(1) Transform you into
ideally rational
thinkers
RECAP
Last class, we learned the meaning of some boolean connectives
, , and .
TAUTOLOGIES AND LOGICAL
NECESSIT Y
These connectives are truth-functional: if you know the truthvalues of the input sentences, you can know the truth-value of
the complex outpu
RECAP
INFORMAL PROOFS WITH
BOOLEAN CONNEC TIVES
Truth tables allow us to establish:
tautological necessity
tautological equivalence
tautological consequence
How?
1
QUIZLET
2
QUIZLET
Is the conclusion of the following argument a tautological
consequence of
CLASS BUSINESS
The second pset is due at noon this coming Monday.
CONSEQUENCE AND PROOF
The list of exercises is, as usual, on the course
website.
Please make sure that you have downloaded a copy of
the syllabus with the reading schedule and pset due
date
CLASS BUSINESS
NEGATION AND
CONTRADIC TION RULES
The midterm will be Thursday of next week. It will take
place during regular class time in this room.
The midterm will be closed-book, closed-notes, closedcomputer, etc.
You may use:
Writing utensils
Memory
RECAP
Argument: set of statements with a subset of premises
and at least one conclusion.
PROOF AND THE FITCH
SYSTEM
Valid argument: argument where if all the premises are
true, the conclusion is guaranteed to be true.
What is an invalid argument?
Proof: s
PHIL 10 4/14/2008 Argument o Leads you to what is true o They come in various forms o Verbal, written propositional, representations of episodes of reasoning o Determining what follows from facts or assumptions o Set of statements such that one is ta
Lecture 14
More informal fallacies:
-False Cause
-Hasty Generalization
-Weak Analogy
-Begging the Question
-Affirming the
Antecedent/Denying
the Consequent
During the past two months,
every time the cheerleaders have
worn blue ribbons, the basketball
team
PHIL 10 4/14/2008 Argument o Leads you to what is true o They come in various forms o Verbal, written propositional, representations of episodes of reasoning o Determining what follows from facts or assumptions o Set of statements such that one is ta
PHIL 10 1/16/08 Truth Functions, Evaluating compound statements A function is something that takes inputs and produces outputs A function can be defined in terms of it's entire input-output structure Truth Functions Truth functions are functions tha
Disjunction (or, unless) o Dallas will win = D o Buffalo will win = B o DvB Conditional o You earn exactly 900 points = N o You get some form of A = A o If you earn exactly 900 pts, then you will get some form of A N A o Statement following `if' is
PHIL 10 1/23/08 Relations between two statements: equivalence, consistency, implication Two statements are equivalent iff they have identical truth columns To test for equivalence, construct a joint truth table for the two statements and compare tr
Lecture 2: Arguments,
Statements, and
Recursion
Arguments
Arguments are verbal, written,
propositional, representations of
episodes of reasoning
Reasoning is determining what
follows from facts or assumptions
An argument: A set of statements
such that one
Lecture 3: Translating
from spoken language
to formal notation
Five Statement
Operators: Negation
Negation is expressed in a
number of ways in English
1. Translating five statement operators
The cat is on the mat.
2. Translating compound statements
The ca
Lecture 4: Truth
functions, evaluating
compound statements
1. Functions, arithmetic functions, and
truth functions
2. Definitions of truth functions
Functions
A function is something that takes inputs
and produces outputs.
You can think of them as a sort