Lecture 1: Introduction
Philosophy 10
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Content Introduction
Administrative
Information
Who I am?
Rick Grush
Professor of Philosophy
UC San Diego
Who else is inv
Ill be home in time for dinner unless I either get caught up at work or traffic is unusually bad.
D v (C v T)
D = Ill be home in time for dinner
C = I get caught up at work
T = traffic is unusually bad.
If you dont get a job this summer, then you should t
Lecture 15
Additional Examples
Pram oil filters: pay a little more
now, or pay a lot more later.
As the number of laws on the
book has increased over the past
50 years, the number of crimes
committed has also increased. So
if we cut down on the number of
Lecture 11
Informal fallacies:
Genetic, Ad Hominem,
Ad Populam
1. What are informal fallacies?
2. First three fallacies
3. Further examples
Genetic Fallacy
The genetic fallacy is committed
when someone attempts to
criticize an argument or view or
theory n
Lecture 12
More informal fallacies:
Appeal to Pity
Straw Man
Appeal to Force
Appeal to Authority
Professor Grush, I know I
bombed the midterm, but surely I
deserve to pass the class. My
grandmother died, my car broke
down, and my dog got hit by the
Amtrak
Lecture 13
More informal fallacies:
- Appeal to Ignorance
- Slippery Slope
- False Dichotomy
- Alternate Description
- Composition/Division
Nobody has ever proved that God
does not exist, so God must exist.
Nobody has ever proved that ESP
is true, so it m
Lecture 14
More informal fallacies:
-False Cause
-Hasty Generalization
-Weak Analogy
-Begging the Question
-Affirming the
Antecedent/Denying
the Consequent
During the past two months,
every time the cheerleaders have
worn blue ribbons, the basketball
team
PHIL 10 4/14/2008 Argument o Leads you to what is true o They come in various forms o Verbal, written propositional, representations of episodes of reasoning o Determining what follows from facts or assumptions o Set of statements such that one is ta
Practice Quiz 4
Name: _ Section: _ Score (for grader use only)
This quiz has 9 questions, and is worth 110 points total (11% of the total points for this course). Point
values cfw_or each question are listed in brackets after the question number. Five poi
Practice Quiz One
Name: _ Section: Score:
This quiz has 11 questions, and is worth 110 points total (11% of the t '
. . _ otal pomts for thi .
Point values for each question are listed In brackets after the question number. Five poirsitgoolnstegis
exam ar
Practice Final Exam
Name: /
and is worth 450 points total (45% of the total points for this course). It
is broken down into six parts: parts 15 each correspond to material from chapters 1-5 of the text,
and from exams 1-5. Each of these sections is worth
Practice Quiz 2
Name: Section: Score
This quiz has 9 questions, and is worth 110 points total (11% of the total points for this course). Point
values for each question are listed in brackets after the question number. Five points on this quiz are
earned b
Practice Quiz 3 .
Name: Section: Score:
This quiz has 9 questions, and is worth 110 points total (11% of the total points for this course). Point
values for each question are listed in brackets after the question number. Five points on this quiz are
earne
Lecture 10
Further clarifications,
common errors,
and examples
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Negation
Statement variables
Operator specificity
Component order
Subproof requirements
Examples
Negation
!
~!
~!
x. (P v Q) ~T
y. T
z. ~(P v Q)
x, y MT
Negation
The appearan
Lecture 9
Conditional Proof,
Nested Subproofs, &
Tautologies
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Conditional Proof
Examples
Nested Subproofs
Examples
Tautologies
Examples
Conditional Proof
At some point in a proof, you
decide youd like to be able to
derive ! ! on a line, b
PHIL 10 4/14/2008 Argument o Leads you to what is true o They come in various forms o Verbal, written propositional, representations of episodes of reasoning o Determining what follows from facts or assumptions o Set of statements such that one is ta
PHIL 10 1/16/08 Truth Functions, Evaluating compound statements A function is something that takes inputs and produces outputs A function can be defined in terms of it's entire input-output structure Truth Functions Truth functions are functions tha
Disjunction (or, unless) o Dallas will win = D o Buffalo will win = B o DvB Conditional o You earn exactly 900 points = N o You get some form of A = A o If you earn exactly 900 pts, then you will get some form of A N A o Statement following `if' is
PHIL 10 1/23/08 Relations between two statements: equivalence, consistency, implication Two statements are equivalent iff they have identical truth columns To test for equivalence, construct a joint truth table for the two statements and compare tr
Lecture 2: Arguments,
Statements, and
Recursion
Arguments
Arguments are verbal, written,
propositional, representations of
episodes of reasoning
Reasoning is determining what
follows from facts or assumptions
An argument: A set of statements
such that one
Lecture 3: Translating
from spoken language
to formal notation
Five Statement
Operators: Negation
Negation is expressed in a
number of ways in English
1. Translating five statement operators
The cat is on the mat.
2. Translating compound statements
The ca
Lecture 4: Truth
functions, evaluating
compound statements
1. Functions, arithmetic functions, and
truth functions
2. Definitions of truth functions
Functions
A function is something that takes inputs
and produces outputs.
You can think of them as a sort
Lecture 5: Equivalence,
consistency, implication,
& validity
1. Relations between two statements:
equivalence, consistency, implication
2. Relations between three or more
statements: equivalence, consistency,
joint implication
Relations between two
statem
Lecture 06
Proofs: Inference Rules
1. Introduction to the proof
method
2. Two inference rules:
MP, MT, examples
Introduction to the
Proof Method
1. Representation of argument
1. (A ! B)
C
2. A ! B
3. Discussion
/
C
4. DS, HS, simp, examples
Introduction t
Practice Quiz 5
Name: Section: Score (for grader use only):
This quiz has 12 questions, and is worth 110 points total (11% of the total points for this course.) For
multiple choice questions there is obviously no partial credit, but for other questions, t