Head Trauma Classification o o Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS): severity as mild, moderate, or severe Should also look at o Mechanism of injury: closed or penetrating o Intracranial (skull) consequence: diffuse brain injury or focal hematoma (blood clot cau
Questions Pg.21 5. Why should hypotonic fluids be avoided in head trauma patients?
o Hypotonic fluids (low osmotic pressure) can cause hyponatremia:
o o Leads water to diffuse down its osmoicgradient into brain from veseels Elevates ICP
Hernias o o Caused by weakness/defects in anterior abdominal wall o Portions of small bowel protrude Types: inguinal, umbilical, femoral, incisional o Present as bulges o Worsened by increased intraabdominal pressure (heavy lifting, coughing, sneezin