January 28, 2009
Exam guidelines 1. This is a closed book, closed note exam. Work by yourself and do not talk with any other students. You have ~50 min (until 9:50 AM) to hand in the exam. You may work in pen or
The Neurobiology of Emotion: an Overview
Introduction: Limbic circuits
Social Bonding: Ventral Striatum
Fear, Fear Conditioning, Fear Extinction: Amygdala
Somatic Marker Hypothesis:
The role of Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex and Emotions in De
Human eyes can see dim light emitting from stars that 2 million light years
We are able to detect light intensity spanning 14 orders of magnitude
Structure of the Eye
Focus is done by the
Ramon y Cajal: The Neuron Doctrine
The neuron doctrine (early 20th century): nerve cells are discrete entities,
and they communicate with each other by means of specialized contacts
that Sherrington later called synapses.
Otto Loewis exp
What is Sound?
Sound: Pressure wave generated
by vibrating air molecule
Physical properties of sound wave:
Perceptual quality of sound wave:
Human ears can detect 20-20,000 Hz
Bats: 20-200 kHz.
Physical Intensity of
On-center and Off-center Ganglion Cells
Receptive field = the small area in the retina that produces a response.
On-center and off-center cells
Circuitry for On-center and Of
Odors and Odorants
Odorant: volatile chemical. For example, You were given the odorant benzaldehyde to smell.
Odor: smell sensation of a particular quality. For example, The cake had a chocolate odor.
Odor categories (established by John Amoore in 1950s):
Welcome to BIPN 142 Systems Neurobiology
Which depiction of amnesia is not realistic?
(a) Guy Perces character Leonard in Memento
(b) Drew Barrymore in 50 First Dates
Which of the following strategies is the best one for overcoming jet
(a) Taking mel
Circadian rhythm: most function of all living system display a rhythm of approximately 24 hours
Nocturnal: active during the dark period. Rodents, barn owl, etc.
Diurnal: active during the day. Humans, fruit flies, etc.
The Central Nervous System
The CNS has 7 major parts: spinal cord, medulla,
pons, cerebellum, midbrain, diencephalon and
Brainstem: medulla, pons and midbrain.
Diencephalon: thalamus and hypothalamus.
David Lindens Accidental Mind. Human brain i
Three major subsystems for the somatic sensation:
Touch, pressure and vibration detected by cutaneous mechanoreceptors
Proprioception mediated by specialized receptors associated with
muscles, tendon and joints. A sense for the position of limbs and oth
The World You Know
What is real? How do you define
real? If you are talking about what
you can feel, what you can smell,
what you can taste and see, then real
is simply electrical signals interpreted
by your brain. This is the world you
Motor Neuron-Muscle Relationship
There are more muscle fibers than motor neurons
In mature animals, each motor neuron typically innervate multiple muscle fibers
Each muscle fiber is innervated by a single motor neuron
Motor neurons reside in the ventr
How To Catch a Flying Ball?
What is a movement?
Individual muscle twitches.
Movement of a single joint: synergists & antagonists.
Movement fragment: combination of joint movements
e.g., flexing all fingers to grasp an object.
Complex movement: a seque
Outward and inward currents
Hyperpolarization and depolarization
Temporal and spatial summation