22 October 2013
As our planet continues to grow it requires more and more raw materials to be ripped
from the earth and worked into our daily lives. For the last millennia, human intelligence has
subclinical infections occur. The well-adapted carrier hosts include
species in the subfamilies Alcelaphinae, Caprinae, and Hippotraginae.
The major carrier species are wildebeest, sheep and goats. The hosts
shed virus into the environment and are capable
(CpHV-2), and a virus of unknown origin that causes MCF in whitetailed deer (MCFV-WTD). They exist as well-adapted, ubiquitous
infections that generally cause no disease in their respective carrier
species. AlHV-1 in wildebeest is the causative agent for
such cattle may develop recrudescent disease or remain unthrifty.
Complete recovery is possible. Once clinical signs appear, mortality
rates in American and European bison, susceptible cervid species,
water buffalo and banteng approach 100%. 6. CLINICAL S
stable enzootic state with the virus to occur, even though there may be
occasional deaths from NSD. Long term tick control strategies are not
warranted because they are expensive, environmentally destructive,
and difficult to maintain leaving highly susce
which MCFV rhadinovirus is involved, particularly when exotic or
species unfamiliar to the investigator are involved. The notion that
MCF causes stereotypical pathognomonic lesions should be regarded
skeptically. Once lesions suggestive of MCF are found,
needed to completely prevent MCF losses is difficult to determine.
Many factors influence virus transmission, particularly host
susceptibility and amount of virus that is shed. Establishing adequate
yet practical separation distances is the most important
its serologic identification. The other very important surface protein is
the fusion (F) protein, which has a critical role in the pathogenesis of
the disease. There are at least nine known serotypes of avian
paramyxoviruses and of these, APMV-1 viruses a
epithelium with hemorrhages, and hyaline and cellular casts within
the renal tubules. Necrosis of cardiac myocytes is often severe, and
coagulative necrosis of the gall bladder mucosa is usually present.
NAIROBI SHEEP DISEASE 339 8. IMMUNE RESPONSE a.
Intrauterine transmission in sheep is rare. Infected lambs begin to
shed virus at about 6 months of age.Shedding episodes are short-lived
but intense. After about 10 months of age, the frequency of shedding
episodes declines. Adult sheep can 328 FOREIGN A
miles when bison were exposed to 20,000 adolescent sheep in a feedlot.
Based on limited data, the epidemiology of CpHV-2 appears similar to
that in sheep. b. Incubation period A relatively long incubation period
is observed in both wildebeest-associated a
deer in Saskatchewan. Can Vet J 14:106-9. See Part IV for photos.
Donal OToole, DVM, PhD, Wyoming State Laboratory, Laramie, WY
82070, [email protected] - and - Hong Li, DVM, PhD, Animal Disease
Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA 99164-6630,
some of the most important tick-borne pathogens in animals and
humans. The 34 members are predominantly tick-borne, and the
genus consists of 7 serogroups. NSDV is closely related to Dugbe
virus, which causes infection in cattle and humans, and to viruses
cattle due to OvHV-2 is generally less than 1%. There are reports of
higher morbidity rates in individual herds: 8.3% (Wyoming), 16.6%
and 10% (California), 33% (Ireland), 37% (Colorado), 50%
(Michigan), 50% (South Africa). These reports tend to enter the
procedures need not be as strict as for highly contagious diseases.
NAIROBI SHEEP DISEASE 341 11. GUIDE TO THE
LITERATURE 1. ANONYMOUS. The Universal Virus Database of
the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Developed and
maintained by BuchenO
among Bali cattle, morbidity rates are much lower. d. Mortality In the
current endemic situation, case-fatality rate in Bali cattle is about
20%. 6. CLINICAL SIGNS a. Bali cattle Animals experience clinical
disease for as long as 12 days. There is fever,
specimens from mammals and birds using TaqMan RT-PCR. Journal
of Virological Methods. 137:21- 28. 4. SHEAHAN, B.J., MOORE, M.
and ATKINS, G.J. 2002. The pathogenicity of louping ill virus for
mice and lambs. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 126:137-146.
immunohistochemistry. 324 FOREIGN ANIMAL DISEASES 10.
PREVENTION AND CONTROL The most effective control measure
is vaccination. Treatment of animals with acaricide to diminish tick
burden and therefore viral challenge is also helpful. 11. GUIDE TO
22 October 2013
Heat Shock Proteins
For my research I chose to look at the expression of heat shock Proteins, most of which
are molecular chaperones. These proteins are important to every form of life, from bacterial to
louping gait. As the disease progresses, more cortical function is
compromised, with hypersensitivity, head-pressing, convulsions, and
coma. The clinical course lasts 7-12 days. Even those animals that
recover may have persistent central nervous deficits
Bali cattle are the domestic variety of the wild banteng (Bos
javanicus). Other than disease occurring in this species, there are no
reports of the disease in wild animals. c. Humans There is no evidence
to suggest that humans can be infected with JDV. 31
virus through the feeding on these animals. There may be no clinical
signs in these reservoir animals These animals that serve as reservoirs
of infection do not have any signs of disease. b. Immunization A
formalin-inactivated commercial vaccine is availa
Lymphoblastoid response is evident in many lymphoid organs,
affecting the Tcell areas and sparing the B-cell zones. In addition,
lymphocytic inflammation may be seen in multiple visceral organs,
especially kidney and lung. JEMBRANA DISEASE 319 8. IMMUNE
presumptive diagnosis, with samples taken for laboratory
confirmation. b. Laboratory diagnosis i. Samples Serum, lymph nodes,
spleen, and a variety of tissues fixed in formalin should be collected. ii.
Laboratory procedures An ELISA test is available. Dia
lambs, kids, or humans through ingestion. b. Incubation period In
sheep, the incubation period ranges from 6 to 18 days. c. Morbidity
Morbidity in sheep depends on immune status and severity of virus
challenge. In areas where there is widespread vaccinati
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA
30602-7388, [email protected] 321 31 LOUPING-ILL 1. NAME
Louping-ill, ovine encephalomyelitis, infectious encephalomyelitis of
sheep, trembling-ill 2. DEFINITION Louping-ill (LI) is a tick-b
1995. Species differences in the reaction of cattle to Jembrana disease
virus infection. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 112(4):391-402.
320 FOREIGN ANIMAL DISEASES 2. SOEHARSONO, S.,
WILCOX, G.E., PUTRA, A.A., HARTANINGSIH, N., SULISTYANA,
K. and TENAY
presentation in domesticated cattle involves fever, rhinitis, depression,
and bilateral keratoconjunctivitis. Clinical signs in American bison
and susceptible cervid species comprise depression, diarrhea, and a
short clinical course terminating in death.
species affected. Mice have served as an effective laboratory model.
There is good indication that sheep may serve as a reservoir of the
infection. b. Wild animals Red grouse, deer, hares, rabbits, rats,
shrews, voles, and wood mice are infected naturally
illness, encephalitis, poliomyelitis-like syndrome, or hemorrhagic
fever. 5. EPIDEMIOLOGY a. Transmission The virus is transmitted
by the three-host sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus. This tick feeds on a variety
of hosts, including sheep, deer, hares, and grous