most natural rocks are aggregates of mineral grains
many rocks come from observable processes that take
place on Earth's surface
Geologists look @ old rocks & how new rocks are
rocks that aren't related to observable processes come
mineral/rock fragments or material of organic origin are
eroded/dissolved and then DEPOSITED IN LAYERS @
SOURCE ROCK from which sediment came
TRANSPORT MECHANISM (wind, water, ice)
SITE OF DEPOSITION (riv
Successive stages of development of Crater Lake,
1. Mount Mazama
2. ash fall
4. Caldera collapse
5. Wizard island, Crater Lake
Caldera hole formed due to collapse after an eruption
removes underlying magma.
2 main ways melting oc
2. Cementation dissolved minerals deposited in pores &
help "bind" particles together (calcite, quartz, clay
minerals, & hematite important)
3. Compaction sediments buried, increasing pressure
from above material forces water & air out of th
Elements: Important for Earth Oxygen, Silicon, Iron,
Magnesium, Aluminum, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium
WHAT IS THE EARTH MADE OF?
Minerals: chemical compounds w/ different atomic
Polymorphs ("phases"): minerals w/ same chemical
composition but di
Identifying Characteristics of Minerals
Color is determined by chemical composition of minerals
EXAMPLE Quartz SiO2
Amethyst (iron or manganese)
Smoky Quartz (aluminum)
disordered example: glass/obsidian
November 15, 1999
Choose the m answer.
1. Which rock type is most likely to be associated with karst topography?
1. granite 4. basalt
4 5. shale
.Wh'h' f d
d soil creep?
.5 . _ 4. d
the partial melting of rock into very hot magma (a
mixture of molten silicate minerals, or liquid rock) and
the solidification of that liquid into new igneous rock.
occur during volcanic eruptions
when magma doesn't reach surface, solidi