Differentiate among natural hazards, disasters, and catastrophes. (p. 5)
Natural hazard: natural process and event that is a potential threat to
human life and property. Process and event themselves are not a hazard
but become so because of human use of
What are the major differences between the inner and outer cores of Earth?
Inner core: 750 mi thick, size of the moon but with a temperature about as
high as the temperature of the surface of the sun. Believed to be primarily
metallic, composed of mostly
Catastrophe: event r situation causing sufficient damage to people, property, or
society that recovery or rehabilitation is long and complex; natural processes most
likely to produce a catastrophe include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunamis,
Fault (p. 55)-fracture or fracture system in earth materials along which rocks on opposite sides of
the fracture have moved relative to one another.
Footwall (p. 55)-block of earths crust that is below a slanted geologic fault
Hanging wall (p. 5
Describe the major process that is thought to produce Earths magnetic field.
How have magnetic reversals and the study of paleomagnetism been
important in understanding plate tectonics?
What are hot spots?
Volcanic centers resulting from hot materials pro
What is uniformitarianism, and how does it help us understand natural hazards?
Uniformitarianism: concept that the present is the key to the past; we
can read the geologic record by studying present processes.
Differentiate among precursor events, foreca
What is meant by the phrase natural service functions?
Same natural events that take human like and destroy property also
provide us with important benefits. Example: periodic flooding of the
mississsippi river supplies nutrients to the floodplain and cr
Sudden vertical displacement of water
Selche- oscillating waves in enclosed body of water; big lake, swimming pool
Wavelength: distance from peak to peak ( avg. tsunami wavelength is 360 km)
Height: distance from peak to trough ( small distance
Asthenosphere -upper zone of earths mantle, located directly below the
lithosphere; a hot, slowly flowing layer of relatively weak rock upon which
tectonic plates move
Convection: transfer of heat by a mass of moving particles; primary process in