Copyright 9 by DC Heath and Company
Finding Out about Matter
to ? K
and Physical Changes
Changes that produce new kinds of matter with different properties are called
chemical changes. Changes that do not do so are
In going from a particular set of reactants to a particular set of products, the
change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one
step or in a series of steps.
N2(g) + 2O2(g)
H1 = 68 kJ
When dissolved in water produce a solution containing free H+ ions
An acid is a molecule with one or more H+ ions attached to an anion
If the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix
hydro and the
Changes in a System
Le Chteliers Principle
. . . if a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the position of
the equilibrium will shift in a direction that tends to reduce that change.
Effects of Changes on the System
1. Concentration: The system w
Rules Governing Formal Charge
To calculate the formal charge on an atom:
Take the sum of the lone pair electrons and one-half the shared electrons.
This is the number of valence electrons assigned to the atom in the
Subtract the nu
Covalent vs Polar Covalent Bonds
When electrons are shared by nuclei and forms bond then the bond known
as covalent bond.
H2 molecule: electrons reside primarily in the space between the two
nuclei, attracted by both protons. The potential e
For the first row transition metals 3d orbitals begin to fill after the 4s orbital
Sc:[Ar]4s23d1, Ti: [Ar]4s23d2, V: [Ar]4s23d3, Cr: [Ar]4s23d4
(expected), [Ar]4s13d5 (actual).
Chromium configuration occurs because the
Specific Heat Capacity: The energy required to raise the temperature of
one gram of a substance by one degree celsius (J/oC.g).
Molar Heat Capacity: The energy required to raise the temperature of one
mole of a substance by one degree celsiu
The overall reaction is split into two half-reactions, one involving
oxidation and one reduction.
8H+ + MnO4 + 5Fe2+
Mn2+ + 5Fe3+ + 4H2O
Fe2+ is oxidized and MnO4- is reduce. Electrons are transferred from
Fe2+ (reducing agen
Chemistry 11: Measurement Review Name: I
1. Indicate the number of signicant gures in each of the following measurements:
a) 1.30 mL 3 d) 0.040 cm 1 M
b)3.51 g 5 e)3x 106m L
c) 10.2146g 6 02.2x102cm
2. Convert the following measurements to standar
AP Chem Gas Laws Worksheet No. l
If 1.00 mol of an ideal gas occupies 1.00 m3 at 1.00 kPa what must be the Kelvin
temperature? The ideal gas constant is 8.314 J mol'lKl.
a) 0.120 K
c 273 K
d) 8.314 K
e) 120.000 K
. Write the equation for overall reaction "aim-in- m radiates. I
Mcon? Explain. + .,
.Inl'umtoha MI szfi" H01, OH_:;..J Igf, :~ 5:. 92' I'Um :31}, u .13 a
Consider the following? potential energy diagrami 15.; ,a,
Electrochemisz 2 Review Worksheet
- In :1 redox reaction, the species which loses electrons
is called the cathode.
gains mass at the electrode.
decreases in oxidation number.
Consider the following redox equation:
Example: What volume of 16 M sulfuric acid
must be used to prepare 1.5 L of 0.10 M H2SO4
V1 = Volume before dilution = ?
M1 = Concentration before dilution = 16 M
V2 = Volume after dilution = 1.5 L
M2 = Concentration after dil